Wisdom From India Series - 2   (Decide FINAL serial title and sequence) [This page is known as the Half-title. This is all it contains. No graphics]

Wisdom from India - 2


Series Editor: Ivan Kostka



Wisdom From India - 2

Vishal Mangalwadi




Y  O  G  A

Five Ways Of Salvation In Hinduism

Ó Vishal Mangalwadi 2001
(sub-title on the inside only? This is known as Title Page. Sub-title does go here.)

Vishal Mangalwadi


[Copyright page, as before, Verso]


[Epigraph Recto]

[Contents Recto – keep on one page only]

Acknowledgements (Verso of Contents page) We should acknowledge Larry Landis, Bruce Teichroew and Brad Olson, Ruth Mangalwadi’s contributions to the project.

Preface by Ivan (as before) RecContents

1.  THE GLOBAL APPEAL OF YOGA                                     3


- The Basic Human Problem

- Biological, Metaphysical or Moral?


2.    TECHNIQUES TO ALTER CONSCIOUSNESS                     5 


            - Hatha Yoga: Salvation Through Physical Exercises

- Japa Yoga: The ‘Mechanical Path’ To Salvation

- Surat-Shabd Yoga: The Path Of Sound And Light

- Kundalini Yoga: Salvation Through The ‘Serpent Power’

          - Tantra Yoga: Salvation Through Sex


3.  MANY WAYS TO SALVATION?                                    15



Glossary                                                                                               17

Footnotes                                                                                             18          List of Abbreviations (Verso of Preface)

Text begins Recto, with Sub-heading


YogaYoga’s global popularity testifies to India’s growing cultural influence. It compensates for our recurring four-yearly embarrassment that we don’t at of not winning Olympic goldmedals in  at the Olympics: that we are not a healthy, athletic people. How can Indian culture contribute to global health via Yogayoga, and yet not and yetif it cannot  not produce winning athletes?

The answer is simple: Yogayoga  has not produced an athletic culture in India because Yogawas never meant to be a means of physical fitness discipline régime. In Indian philosophy Yogayoga is a means of  to salvation or liberation (mokshaM). The original philosophy behind Yoga defined liberation as soul’s isolation from body. Obtaining “out-of-body” experiences is still the goal of some popular forms of Yoga. Later, after other schools of Indian philosophy had adopted Yoga, its goal was reinterpreted as the union of the human self with the Cosmic Self or God. Physical Yogayoga (that is, Hathahatha Yogayoga) is only one form of Yogayoga. Indian sages have taught many different forms of Yogayoga – or ways of obtaining one’s salvation. Indian Yogis have a case when they say that the The Western fans of Yogayoga abuse it when they use it primarily for physical fitness.

Comprehending the claim that Yoga is a stress management technique is easier than the idea that it is a way of salvation.  Jews, Christians and Muslims naturally especially find it difficult to understand how physical exercises could contribute to one’s spiritual salvation. This booklet seeks to explain the religious worldview behind Yogayoga. Let us begin with a question:

[Level B]

What is a human beings’ The Basic Human Problem

? Or  What is the basic human problem?

Is the basic human problem it biological, moral or metaphysical?


The mMaterialists think that Mother Nature (evolution) has made us bad. That . Oour problem,, therefore, therefore, is biological or genetic. Perhaps some day genetic engineers will be able to make us good – loving, caring, just and upright. Scientists will ould then become our saviours. They will determine what we can think, say and do. Butwould might we not then lose our humanity – our ability to make moral choices? Would love really be love when we are genetically engineered to love? Doesn’t the moral value of an act depend upon our choosing that act voluntarily?

The Jews popularized the idea that the human problem is moral: that the human beings are sinners, guilty of having broken God’s law. Christianity and Islam share the Jewish perspective. We will return to this idea later.

[I THINK THIS EVANGELISTIC PASSAGE SHOULD BE PUT AT THE END.  IT COULD BE SO OFF-PUTTING AT THIS STAGE, THAT NO ON READS ANY FURTHER.]  The Jews popularized the idea that the human problem is moral, rather than biological. They were taught that God created human beings “good.” (Would you expect anything different from an almighty Creator?) Our first parents, said Genesis (the first book of the Torah and the whole Bible) chose to disobey God. Thereby they became sinners. That trait has been transmitted to us all. Although we are still God’s image {“in God’s image” or “God’s image-bearers”} and capable of goodness, none of us is perfect. From childhood our tendency is towards evil. Therefore we need teaching and training to live moral lives. Yet, in spite of the best training we fail morally. Our central problem, therefore, according to the biblical (Jewish, Christian and Islamic) tradition is that we are sinners. We need a divine Savior who will forgive our sins and transform our hearts – the core of our being – to remake us what we were intended to be: God’s image-bearers.YogaYoga’s worldview is different than from the Bible’s. It assumes that the human problem is neither biological, nor moral, but metaphysical.


[Level B] What is “Biological, mMetaphysical, or Moral?


Before explaining the Yogic belief that the human problem is metaphysical rather than moral, that let me hasten to add that some ancient Hindu {Vedic?}   traditions   do takeour moral weakness and failures seriously. They recommend ritual sacrifices for the to propitiatione for of our sins. These sacrifices are similar to the ones taught in the Jewish sScriptures, commonly called the Old Testament. Some of these Hindu scriptural teachings on sacrifice foreshadow the New Testament teaching that Jesus sacrificed himself for our sin, as our a substitute. Nevertheless, later Hinduism does not think that the our basic human problem is moral. [Too much use of ‘our’ appears morally coercive here!  Hindus presumably do not acquiese to this particular morality, else there’s be no need to write the book.]

Originally Yogayoga techniques were a part of Samkhya philosophy. This philosophy was  is dualistic in that it postulates d two ultimate realities: purusha (soul) and prakruti (physical nature). Samkhya teaches taught that soul (purusha) is pure, but physical nature (prakruti) is evil. Somehow the soul has become entangled with the physical body. Therefore oOur salvation  liberation or mMokhsha therefore lies in isolating soul from body. YogaYoga was the technique by which to achieve this isolation. of isolating soul from bodyThis low view of the physical body naturally undermined development of a culture of physical fitness in India.

Today, generally Yogayoga is defined not as isolation of soul from body but as union of soul (atma) with and God (Brahma).   This change has occurred because gradually Yogaother schools of Indian philosophy that rejected Samkhya philosophy adopted yoga.

A prominent version of Upanishadic Hinduism, for example, taught that the human soul is was not distinct from God. God (Brahma or the Universal Self) was is the same as the human soul (atma or our inner self). God and man were are ultimately one. This teaching is was called nNon-Ddualism (Aadwaita), meaning that the human self and the divine self are were not two distinct entities. It is also called mMonism – from mono or one – emphasizing oneness of everything, especially of God and man. The monistic gurus teach that man is Infinite Consciousness or God, who has somehow forgotten his true nature and become entangled in finite, personal, rational, consciousness.   So long as he remains in this state of ignorance, he is repeatedly born into this world of suffering.   Salvation lies in transcending finite, personal consciousness and merging into (or experiencing ourselves to be) the Infinite Impersonal Consciousness, and thereby escaping getting out of the cycle of births and deaths. , Iin this school of thought, yoga is understood as a technique of uniting the human soul with the divine soul.

In parenthesis it should be acknowledged that unfortunately Mmonism or Nnon-Ddualism did not undo the damage that Samkhya philosophy had done to the Indian view of the material world, including the human body. In a sense it made matters worse by declaring the material universe to be a dream (or rather a nightmare) of God. It called the physical world maya or illusion. A nightmare might be so vivid that it makes you scream. But when you wake up you realize that it was unreal an illusion, created by your own mind. Likewise when you attain enlightenment and realize your divinity, you awaken to see that the world is unreal, an illusion. This low view of the physical universe also , undermineding thereby any serious interest in nature and science in India.

Although the nNon-Ddualists or mMonists rejected Samkhya philosophy, nevertheless they also saw the central human problem as metaphysical rather than moral. We are God; we cannot therefore have broken any divine moral law. , not guilty of having broken God’s moral law Therefore, oOur problem is that somehow we have somehow forgotten our divinity. In other words ignorance, not sin, is our problem. We need to experience, realize or perceive our divinity, not repent of anything or seek forgivenessand seek moral transformation.

To say that the human beings are not sinners; but simply ignorant of their our true self, is to imply that the problem lies is with our consciousness or perception. Our sSalvation lies in attaining that original state of consciousness, that has been we have lost. If you are God, you cannot expect a Ggod to come and save you. You have to realize your own divinity . . . and Yogayoga is the path of by which to experience ing God consciousness, or your inner, essential divinity.  {Inconsistent ‘you’ and ‘us’ – so I’ve dropped one.}


 Salvation, in other words, is a matter of perception or realization.   You are already God, you just have to perceive or realize this fact. Perceiving, in this context, is not a cognitive activity.   It is not a matter of intellectually knowing or logically deducing that you are God, but rather transcending your cognitive, rational consciousness and experiencing a higher state of expanded consciousness which is believed to be God or our true self. (I have used the term “man” in the last {next?} two paragraphs because traditional Hinduism did not accept equality of male and female. While some contemporary gurus affirm equality, the traditional view is that a woman needs to be reborn male before she could find salvation or Moksha.)


    Of course, not all gurus teach mMonism or Nnon-Ddualism. Some gurus and sects, such as Hare Krishna, do not believe that man is or ever becomes God.   God, according to Hare Krishna, is a personal Being, Krishna. Man’s original state is Krishna--Cconsciousness and his true nature is to be a loving servant of Krishna. Man’s problem is that he has forgotten his Krishna--Cconsciousness and become entangled in this material world. He has to re-establish his link with Krishna and gain Krishna--Cconsciousness.   Only then will man get out of the cycle of births and deaths and live forever in Goloka {Gokul?}or heaven..


(I have used the term ‘man’ here because traditionally, Hinduism did not accept the equality of male and female. While some contemporary gurus affirm equality, the traditional view is that a woman needs to be re-born male before she can find salvation or moksha.)

 To sum up, salvation in Hinduism consists in the realization, perception, or experience of our so-called true nature.   This realization takes place when we are able to alter our consciousness and attain what is called a higher state of consciousness.

   How can we alter our consciousness? The answer is – through manipulation of the our nervous system. This is so because our consciousness is dependent upon our nervous system.      During the preceding millennia numerous techniques have been developed to manipulate the one’s nervous system in order to alter one’s consciousness.   These techniques are generally called yoga.   Let us discuss a few of the those techniques that have been popularized by modern gurus.




[LEVEL B] 1. HathaHatha Yoga: Salvation Through Physical Exercises



Some chemicals make us sleep, others excite us, intoxicate us, cause make us hallucinations e or have psychedelic experiences in us. Chemicals can change our moods and make us see things inside our head that appear real. By manipulating our brain chemistry we can experience altered states of consciousness. Because our brain needs oxygen and blood to function normally, its chemistry can be affected by regulating breathing and and deliberately decreasing reducing oxygen intake, or by standing upside down on our heads and altering blood flow. So, just as our nervous system and brain can be manipulated chemically, they can also be manipulated physiologically.

HathaHatha yoga, which consists of physical and breathing exercises, is a very ancient method of liberation.   To repeat, the belief that one can attain salvation through physical exercises rests on the assumption that salvation is a matter of perception – of going within and seeing or perceiving our inner consciousness, which is believed to be God. Perceiving, seeing, or experiencing depend on the state of one’s nervous system, which in turn depends on one’s physical condition.   By physiological manipulation of one’s body, the nervous system can be affected and consciousness altered.

One of the Hhatha yoga’s attractions lies in that its stretching exercises that make our bodies extremely flexible. It also trains us to consciously regulate breathing and blood circulation consciously. Its problem however is that toreally mastery it is a long and tedious process requiring much discipline and a competent teacher.

HathaHatha Yogayoga is often advertised as non-religious. It is promoted for fitness, stress management, or for its therapeutic values. The Boynton Health Services at the University of Minnesota, for example, promote Yoga as “The practice of unifying body, mind, and spirit.” That claim is the exact opposite of the actual goal of Yoga to isolate soul and body. Could it be a good means for coping with stress? Obviously, taking one’s attention off from the pressures of life and for a while focussing it on one’s breathing can only help. Does it help more than a session in the swimming pool? We do not yet have such comparative studies to make a judgement. However, some critics do have a valid point: supposing this booklet of mine is so boring that it puts readers off to sleep. Someone struggling with insomnia may decide to read the booklet to be able to go to sleep. There can be nothing wrong with that. But what if I started promoting this booklet as a “sleep-aid”? Most people would consider it unethical advertising. Since the purpose of the booklet is not to help someone to sleep. Some gurus do promote Yoga in secular, even misleading, terms in the hope that the disciple practicing Yogayoga for physical well- being will experience alteration of consciousness and gain a vision of possibilities (Maharishi Mahesh Yogi). This would open the disciple to the philosophy on which Hathahatha yYogayoga rests.   Obviously there are teachers of Hathahatha yYogayoga who are not interested in propagating its philosophical basis at all. They teach it to impart health or to make money. Studies are now being conducted to assess the therapeutic value of Hathahatha Yogayoga and base its claims on sound empirical data. Such research will demystify excessive claims. It should also refine and simplify some of the exercises to maximize their therapeutic value to more people.   

No sane person is likely to object to Hathahatha Yogayoga’s contribution to our health. However, an exclusively therapeutic use of Yogayoga raises the question: is it Yogayoga anymore?   Physical exercises become yoga when they are practiced to alter consciousness or to lose our individual consciousness into an experience called ‘merging into God. As a matter of fact, the Indian schools of Hatha Yoga put much greater emphasis on regulating breathing (Pranayam) than on physical exercises (postures or Asanas). That is true of Patanjali Yoga (approximately AD 300), of Yajnavalkya (AD 1300) and of Hatha Yoga Pradipika, written in the mid-fourteenth century by Svatmanama. Patanjali defined Yoga’s goal as isolation (Kaivalya) or aloneness of self, divorced entirely from any contact with nature, but not itself joined with any all-encompassing unity (God). Yajnavalkya, writing a thousand years later, reinterpreted Yoga as the union of the embodied or “living self” (jiva) with the “Great Self”. His chapter on physical exercises (Asanas) is the shortest (18 stanzas), while on breathing (pranayama) is the longest (80 stanzas). The Hatha Yoga Pradipika devotes only 40 out of a total of 400 stanzas to physical postures, while devoting over a 100 to breathing. 

It is unnecessary here to discuss the ethical question about whether it is OK to promote a “spiritual” discipline as a purely physical program.me. For, as we shall see, Yogayoga’s worldview is not interested in questions of ethics, which pre-supposepresuppose  a dualism of good and evil.

Someone may ask, What is wrong with artificially altering consciousness? By itself there is nothing wrong with an altered state of consciousness. Sleepwalking, hypnosis, hallucination, even madness are all altered states of consciousness. There is nothing wrong with them in a moral sense, even if some of them are deemed undesirable states of consciousness.   The problem is philosophical.  – iIs your altered state of consciousness God? If it is not, then does it matter if you consider your own altered state of consciousness God? Is it harmless to call yourself the President of your nation if in fact you are not the President? If your inner self is not God then when you look within could you be looking for God in the wrong place? Is it right to call something spiritual which is in fact physical or psychological? Does it matter if you are one is mistaken in your his/her beliefs? Well, does it matter if you go on the longest and the most important journey of your life with a map drawn by a person who mistook East for West or North for South?


 [Level B] 2. Japa Yoga: The Mechanical Path To Salvation



Japa is the repetition or chanting of a mantra,   usually a name for of a god or demon. (That may sound strange to dualists, but it is not strange if you believe in the oneness of everything. Then god and demon are not distinct, nor is good different from evil.or demon).   The Hare Krishna movement is a good example of Japa or Bhakti yoga. It chants the names of Krishna and Rama:

          Hare Krishna, Hare Krishna

                                    Krishna Krishna, Hare Hare

                                    Hare Rama, Hare Rama

                                    Rama Rama, Hare Hare


Hare Krishna, Hare Krishna

                                    Krishna Krishna, Hare Hare

                                    Hare Rama, Hare Rama

                                    Rama Rama, Hare Hare

To give a name to something or someone is to distinguish it from others. The monistic gurus believe that there is only one soul – God – and it permeates everyone, if not everything. Therefore they prefer not to use a specific name for God.[1] They use a symbolic name, such as Om or a mantra whose meaning the meditator does not know, so that the name or mantra may not create any thoughts or images in the mind by association.

Our mind is constantly bombarded with many different stimuli entering our brain through our eyes, ears, nose, tongue or touch. Our senses make us aware of the external world – the world of maya or deception. Entanglement with the world, including the world of thoughts is our bondage. How can we forget the world and become aware of the inner self or God? Constant repetition of a sound (mantra) eliminates all other stimuli, thus concentrating the mind. If you keep repeating the mantra then eventually its sound itself becomes a non-stimulus. Your mind goes blank. This induces a state where the mind is aware or conscious, but it is not aware of anything or any thought.   One may say that it is only conscious of consciousness.   This is what is called Ppure Cconsciousness or Ttranscendental Cconsciousness.

In order for this technique to be effective in God-realization, one has to practice it for three or four hours a day.   Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, the popularizer of Transcendental Meditation (TM) prescribes it for only forty minutes a day to the new initiates.   This is meant to give them a taste for it and to help them have a vision of possibilities.   In advanced stages the Maharishi prescribes as much as one full week of silent meditation.

Because the initiation into TM is a private affair, many consider it to be some mysterious thing. Actually it is very simple. A seeker who is interested in taking initiation being initiated is asked to bring flowers, sweets, a white handkerchief, camphor, etc., along with a substantial amount of money as a fee for a puja ceremony. During the ceremony the teacher worships a photo of Maharishi Mahesh Yogi’s guru and also asks the initiate to bow before this photo.   The teacher invokes the blessings of various gods and goddesses and then gives a mantra to the initiate. Usually the mantra is a short word, a name of some Hindu deity such as Ram, or Om, Hrim, {?} Sring, {?} and Aing. These words don’t have a meaning. At least the meditator is not to know them or bother with meaning. The objective of the mantra is to go beyond thinking of meaning, to obtain thoughtlessness.  {?}[I’ve put these words in the Glossary – they need explaining.] The disciple is asked to sit in a comfortable position, close his eyes, and silently repeat the mantra, like, Ram.. . . Ram.. . . Ram. . . . for twenty minutes. He is told that he will first forget the rest of the world and be aware only of the mantra. Then he will forget the mantra too and transcend all thoughts and feelings and become aware of the awareness. This is the Ttranscendental state of consciousness.

After some time, the meditator reaches a higher state of consciousness, called  ‘cCosmic Cconsciousness, in which he is aware, both of the world and of the pPure cConsciousness {italicize? No. Mahesh Yogi (as an Indian) capitalizes these terms and that may be the simplest thing to do, instead of putting them in italics or quotes.}. Then after some more years of meditation, he one can attain God Cconsciousness, in which he comes to perceive the subtler levels of the objective world, which appear as personal. In this state it is said that one can even communicate with birds, animals, plants, and rocks.   After this state comes the final state of Uunity Cconsciousness, in which one perceives oneness of himself with the universe.   This is liberation. {Should the types of Consciousness be in quotes or italics? Consistency!}

Mahesh Yogi calls this path the   Mechanical Path to God-realization.   He says it is possible to realize God in a mechanical way because God-realization is a matter of perception and the process of perception is both mechanical and automatic. In order to perceive the external objects, we just open our eyes and the sight of the object comes automatically without the use of intellect or emotions. Likewise in order to perceive the inner consciousness, we just have to turn the attention inside and we automatically come to perceive it.

Whether perception is outward or inward, writes the Maharishi, it is automatic and mechanical. Perception in the outward direction is the result of a progressive increase of activity of the nervous system. And perception in the inward direction is the result of diminishing activity . . .. until the entire nervous system ceases to function and reaches a state of stillness, a state of restful alertness. This brings the realization of   Be still and know that I am God. 5  

[I cannot retrieve this footnote]Mahesh Yogi’s brilliance lay in the fact that he developed very effective marketing techniques for his brand of Japa Yogayoga.  that hHe called it TM™ {sic}. He insisted that it was not a religious but a scientific technique to reduce stress, induce relaxation, lower blood pressure, increase concentration, creativity and productivity. He also emphasized the social benefits of TM – better relationships, lower crime, higher economic growth and a better world. This enabled TM to gain acceptance in the academic, corporate and political world. More committed followers, however, were taught that reciting mantras that are names of demidemigods will also connect them to the world of spirits. [Ivan you could add a footnote hereMonistic “God” does not have a name. For a name distinguishes one entity from another. But in monism there is only one ultimate reality. Only finite demigods can have names. From ultimate standpoint they are as unreal as we are. Demigods is there term, not mine.] will also connect them to the world of spirits.

In my book The World of Gurus I have told the story of my own initiation into TM that took place in Maharishi’s living room in Rishikesh in the Himalayan foothills. [2] I had to give up TM for practical reasons – my experiment resulted in insomnia. However, I was also having getting doubts about its worldview. : iIt does sounds good to know that deep down in your essence you are God. But if God alone is real and all human beings are God, then what happens to my uniqueness? Is the philosophy behind Yogayoga offering me dignity without uniqueness? I am might be God, but what about my personality? Is that not real? is not real?In the name of enhancing my consciousness, am was I not being led to abandon my consciousness as a unique individual? TM’s claims to achieve of political, economic and ecological utopia through meditation were enticing, but if my very individuality was is unreal, then how could I have claim such basic political privileges as individual rights? To attempt to lose one’s individual consciousness into a larger whole seemed to me to be a recipe for totalitarianism, not political freedom.



[Level B] 3. The sSurat-Shabd Yoga: The Path Of Sound And Light


God is Light, many gurus affirm, and add that this light is within us.   In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God, declare many sects, and add that this Word is within us.   When a soul establishes a contact with this Word, the Word takes it back to the Godhead, its original home.

    The Divine Light Mission [can’t incorporate this footnotes] and Radha Soami Satsang (Beas) [or this] have been chiefly responsible for popularizing sSurat-Sshabd yoga in our day. Surat in this tradition means soul {not “beauty”?} and Sshabd means Word or Sound; so sSurat-sShabd yoga is union of the soul and the Word. It is also called Nam Bhakti, or meditation on the Sound.

The sects that teach this path try to keep their techniques completely secret. The techniques are called by various names, such as Nam (name) and Updesh (knowledge), to deliberately to mislead non-initiates. The name and knowledge actually refers to techniques of physiological manipulation of the senses, or to meditation on what is called the “primeval sound or “Logosand meditation on one’s breathingand to breath control.

Unlike TM, Tthe sects that teach the path of sound and light, unlike TM, do not initiate everyone who asks for it. One has to be spiritually ready for initiation.   There is no objective, declared criterion for judging whether or not a person is ready; it depends on the arbitrary feelings of the initiator. The initiator claims that he has his reasons, but they are not revealed.    Some sects stipulate a few objective conditions, too, such as giving up  liquoralcohol , non-vegetarian food,  and drugs., etc.

After one has been chosen for initiation, he is taken into a closed room, conveniently available, where the initiator explains the importance of the knowledge, Ssatsang   (the weekly gathering for fellowship and teaching) and Satguru (the True Teacher). In most sects Tthe would-be initiate takes a vow of secrecy and to follow no other guru except his own. Although some sects forbid idolatry, generally the would-be initiate Then hebows, kneels, or generally prostrates before the guru or his photographss, and worships them. him/it.

Sects such as the Divine Light Mission teach the following four techniques:

In order to see the divine light, the initiator asks the devotee to close his eyes; then he to place s his middle finger and thumb on his eyes. Then , and starting, from the corner of the eyeballs, he presses the eyeballs up from the bottom, so that in actual fact if the eyelids were open the centerr of the pupils would be looking at the point between the two eyebrows on the forehead just above the nose, which is supposed to be the location of the third eye. If the initiate concentrates on this point, he can see a light.

Some people see only a small point, others see a blinding light, some others see a psychedelic movie of movingpulsating patterns and brilliant colours, and some do not see anything at all. The rReaders can try it for themselves.himself and  You will most probably he will see the light.   Some devotees train their eyes so they can see this light without using their fingers.

In order to hear the divine music or the sound, novices are one is asked to block his their ears with the thumbs so they he cannot hear any external sounds.   When one listens long enough to one’s his inner silence, he one can eventually hear some noises.   To some devotees this sounds like celestial music, whereas others think they are hearing their favorite tune played on a heavenly instrument.

The third technique in Divine Light Mission is a difficult yogic exercise: tasting the divine nectar.   Usually one experiences the nectar only after much practice.   One You have has to curl your one’s tongue to come up to the back of the throat, then swallow the tongue in such a way that it points upwards. Here the tongue is supposed to hit a point and make contact with the divine nectar that is constantly flowing through one’s body.   It is claimed that this nectar is the living water {Bible reference? Your decision!  I don’t think so.}oof which Jesus spoke, and it is indescribably delicioustasty. Some devotees claim this nectar is what Jesus called the bread of life, {Bible reference?} and after making contact with this ever-flowing stream of nectar, one can live without water or food.

The main meditation is a breathing exercise called hearing or contacting the Word.   The devotee is asked to sit in athe lotus position (if possible) with both hands on the knees, and to concentrate on his the breath going up and down, up and down.   This is supposed to tune one into that primordial vibration, the Word or Logos, which has created the universe and sustains it.   By constant meditation one reaches Ssamadhi, or the expanded state of consciousness.   According to the Divine Light Mission, when you achieve Ssamadhi, you become full of the divine light. At initiation, the light may appear as a small dot, but in Ssamadhi it overtakes you and you feel (or perceive) that you have become that {Divine?} Light.

The other sects, who teach salvation through this path, describe their experiences differently. According to some sects, such as the Radha Soami Satsang, during meditation the third eye is opened. The soul leaves the body through this eye with the   Sound Current (Logos), and travels up to heaven.   On the way it has many wonderful experiences, and finally it merges into God.

There can be no reasonable doubt that these experiences are real in the sense of being vivid psychological experiences within one’s head. But are they real in an objective sense? Does the soul ((Ssurat) actually leaves  ones body with the Word (sShabad) and visit other worlds? A meditator follower of the Radha Soami Satsang once said to me, These Americans have gone to the moon only now. We have been travelling to other planets and galaxies for ages – ever since we learnt Ssurat-sShabad Yogayoga!  [Omit para.]


You may be right.,” I replied, tThe only problem is that you don’t bring the rocks back from these planets for us to have some evidence that you actually left your body.


[Level B] 4. Kundalini Yoga: Salvation Through The Serpent Power


Hindu psychology teaches that in the human body, three centimeters above the rectum and three centimeters below the genitals, at the base of the spines, is a beautiful {?} triangle in which lies the Kkundalini , shakti, or the Sserpent Ppower.   What Kkundalini really is, nobody knows. It is supposed to be red and white in colour.   It is also described as coil power or the creative sex energy.   Normally it is taught that kundalini lies coiled and dormant, but when it is awakened, it arises and begins to travel upward.   In its journey from the base of the spine to the top of the head, it passes through six psychic centers called chakras.   When it passes through a chakra, it gives various psychic experiences and powers. When at last it reaches the top chakra, called the sahasrara chakra, one can supposedly attain the power to perform miracles and achieve liberation.

    Many means are used to awaken the Kkundalini.   They range from breathing exercises, like Ppranayam, to the homosexual handling of the genitals. The most influential guru in the last few decades who preached Kkundalini yoga was Swami Muktananda of Ganeshpuri, near Bombay.   He described kundalini yoga as Mmaha yoga (Great yYogayoga) or Ssiddha yoga (Pperfect yYogayoga), for he said it was the only yYogayoga in which the aspirant does not have to do anything.   He just surrenders to the guru and the guru’s grace does everything for him.

Thousands of people have testified that Muktananda had awakened their Kkundalini, but that the method he used is was occultic (hidden or secret).   This e secrecy implies gives the impression of the power and experience being spiritistic or demonic power. Kundalini yoga has not been very popular in India because many of the experiences it gives are what William James, the great Victorian expert on comparative religion, called diabolical mysticism.[3] It gives pain, makes people depressed, and even produces madness.  {Brief description on who James was or footnote reference.}


Muktananda’s own initiation into Kkundalini Yogayoga is explains what William James meant. Muktananda had left his home early in quest of spiritual enlightenment. He went to all the holy places in India that he heard about, and met with all the holy people he could, but he did not find anyone who was truly enlightened and could help him. Discouraged, he was ready to quit, when he found a naked ascetic sitting on a pile of human excreta. (In those days poor people went outdoors for to relieve ing themselves on the ground, while  and the richer people would have had an outdoor toilet’ consisting of a tin, upon which they would squat. outside their housesThey would squat on a tin. Later aA sweeper will would later come and carry away the night soil outside and dump it in one place on the ground.) No body liked going near that dump, but the ascetic was not only sitting on it, but he was brimmingful of  with bliss. Muktananda was intrigued. The naked ascetic invited Muktananda to come and sit on his lap and lick his head. Then he initiated Muktananda into kundalini Yogayoga. Muktananda described his own experience of diabolical mysticism after leaving the ascetic:


[Ivan – I am asking Vishal to check the following quotes.  They do not tally in some of the detail, with the versions in his other books.  The ellipses are particularly important.]

On reaching my destination, I sat . . . for meditation.   Soon after sitting for meditation,I started feeling restless and uneasy.   Within moments strange things were happening to me.   I could not understand it. I was perturbed mentally and emotionally.   My mind seemed deluded.   By the time evening came this delusion became worse.   Generally I am a man of great courage but that day I was overcome by fear.   I felt I would soon become insane. My mind was terribly agitated.[4] {Jenny: Correct indentation and font? No. 3ems indent; font 11pt, same as for a paragraph indent.  They must all be in line.  See my note for Astrology.}




That evening, at about nine o’clock, Muktananda sat again for meditation:.


. . . I felt there was great commotion around.   My entire body started aching and I automatically assumed padmasana, the lotus postureition.   The tongue began to move down the throat, and all attempts to pull it out failed, as I could not insert my fingers into the mouth.   My fear grew; I tried to get up, but I could not, as my legs were tightly locked in padmasana. I felt severe pain in the knot (manipur chakra) below the navel.   I tried to shout but could not even articulate.   It seemed as if something was stuck in my throat. Next,  I saw ugly and dreadful demon-like figures.   I thought them to be evil spirits.

[Ivan don’t forget to indent the indent here, to denote paragraph.]

I then saw blazes of fire on all sides and felt that I too was burning.   After a while I felt a little better.   Suddenly I saw a large ball of light approaching me from the front; as it approached, its light grew brighter and brighter.   It then entered unobstructed through the closed doors of my kutir [hut] and merged into my head.   My eyes were forcibly closed and I felt a fainting sensation.   I  was terrified by thate powerfully dazzling light, and it ???? oput  me out of gear.[5] [I cannot access Vishal’s notes for some reason.  Would you please merge them all as endnotes.]9      {Jenny: Correct indentation and font? See above}


Was Muktananda silly to think that a naked ascetic sitting on a pile of stinking filth must be an enlightened being? Most people would indeed have considered the ascetic mad. But Muktananda was more intelligent. He understood that if Aadwaita or Mmonism is true, if everything is Oone divine consciousness, then that ascetic had really become one with everything. The ascetic was the only one who really knew that the filth was also God. only an illusion (maya), God alone is real, HeGod (or rather It)is everywhere and everything – including that detestable pile of filth. God is blissful consciousness and that is what the ascetic was radiating!   

You cannot discard some things as non-divine and also claim to have become one with EEverything. Holy men who go to the holy places on earth (or to the psychic centers of the earth’s energy as they call it) only betray their faith that everything and every place is God. There is no difference between good and bad, demons and gods.

With that kind of map of as a guide to realityas its guide, it should be not no surprise anyone that Muktananda’s sect split with following umpteen court cases withmultiple court cases alleging ations of rape, sexual and financial abuse, and murders,  in pursuit of capturing institutional worldly power in for his otherwise spiritual empire.


[Level B] 5. Tantra: Salvation Through Sex


Tantra is sometimes portrayed as the opposite of yoga. Both, however, aim at the same end. It Tantra yoga is the opposite of Hathahatha yYogayoga in the sense that the latter is the path of great discipline, effort and self-denial whereas Ttantra is the way of free indulgence.   The tantrictantrics claim that their form of Yogayoga is the original and easiest way of salvation. The possibility of Ssamadhi or Uunity Cconsciousness must have appeared to sages during sexual intercourse, for in orgasm you transcend rational consciousness is transcended in a pleasurable experience of oneness.   Tantra, in part, is, in part, a system of techniques of for prolonging orgasm in order to experience God or Uunity Cconsciousness.
Tantra may have originated in as a part of India’s pre-historic fertility cults. It reappeared in India around AD 600. Three centuries later, at least sixty-four tantrictantric texts were in circulation. By the year AD1000, tantrictantric art had begun to dominate the cultural scene in India. By the nineteenth century Tantrictantricism had sunk to such levels of crudity and cruelty, witchcraft and superstition, description of which is would appear unthinkable in any sophisticated societys. In its crudest forms it includes worship of sex organs, sex orgies which include the drinking of blood and human semen, black magic, human sacrifice, and contact with evil spirits through dead and rotting bodies in cremation grounds. The tantrictantrics were feared for their occult powers, and hated because they kidnapped and sacrificed children to obtain their occult powers from demons. Naturally, self-respecting Brahmins, Muslims, and Christian missionaries all opposed Ttantra. Consequently it went underground in India. 
Therefore, Dr . S. Radhakrishnan, a philosopher and India’s first President did not devoted not even one sentence to Ttantra while compiling A Sourcebook in Indian Philosophy along with Charles A. Moore.[6]
Tantra’s history confirms St. Paul’s profound observation. He noted that when men suppress the truth in unrighteousness and begin to worship creation instead of the Creator, God gives them over in the sinful desires of their hearts to sexual impurity for the degrading of their bodies with one anothergives them up to a base mind, or “in the lusts of their hearts to impurity, to the dishonoring of their bodies among themselves” (Rom.ans 1:24). [IVAN:  I have re-written this, since the first book in the series says it uses the NIV and that’s how this particular text is actually translated.]    And their base minds and lusts lead them to unbelievable depths of filth and foolishness.

It was the ‘‘Ccounter-Cculture’ movement of the 1960s in the West that revived Ttantra and gave it fresh respectability.  by It fused ing sexual permissiveness and the occult with and “spirituality. Although still suspected and despised in India, in the WestTtantra is now at the root of virtually all religious forms of Yogayoga and other Eastern religious practices adopted by the West. This point has been made repeatedly by Professor Johannes Agaard of the Arhus University in Denmark. He is one of Europe’s leading authorities on eEastern religious influence in the West. Agaard’s contention can be illustrated in many ways. An obvious example is Dr.  Fritjof Capra’s highly influential book The Tao of Physics.[7] Capra, a physicist turned mystic /environmentalist, reproduces in the book, a photograph entitled, Self-Rrealization in the experience of sensual love; stone sculpture from the Citragupta temple at Khajuraho, Ccirca A. D. 1000.’[8] . It is so important to him that it is placed as the first among the photographs in his the book. This sculpture, only thirty 30 kilometers from my hometown, is an explicit scene portrayal of sexual intercourse. To represent depict a goddess in the sexual act has a tremendous shock value for young people, especially if they come from a Catholic background where the highest portrayal of femininity has been is as a holy virgin. For the an average wWesterner, the shock lies in the fact that the sculpture is not regarded as pornography, to be suppressed, but is blatantly a part of incorporated into a religious site., not underground pornographic art.

One of Ttantra’s  assumptions is that cosmic sex lies at the root of creation. Tantra accepts the Nnon-Ddualistic (Aadwaitic) idea that reality is one. Our normal (rational/sensory) perception of duality – of male and female, right and wrong, good and evil – is a perception of unreality, maya, or lila. Lila is the play of cosmic consciousness (God) or illusory magic.

Before the beginning, beyond time, was pure consciousness, existing in perfect unity or equilibrium, having no polarity, no form, no thought, no distinction. Something disturbed this primeval, pure and still ocean of consciousness. The divine stability then turned into an oscillating instability, imbalance or insanity. God was divided. The first duality to appear as a result of this ‘insanity’ was male and female. This original duality produced a series of waves, further disturbing the tranquil surface of the sea of bliss (God). A criss-crossing of these waves created elaborate patterns. The farther these waves were removed from their original state as divine consciousness, the ‘grosser’ they became; appearing finally as condensed matter, the world of sense experience. The cosmos, in other words, is a divine devolution – densified frequencies or compacted waves of consciousness that conceal their divinity because they are convoluted divine emanations. The original polarity of male and female manifests itself as the polarity of mind and matter.

Capra  finds this tantric view of the ultimate oneness of mind and matter to be a  a mind-blowing {Jenny: acceptable without quotes? A bit colloquial, but that’s Vishal’s style.} scientific insight. for scientists He notes that it took centuries of painstaking research to lead wWestern science to the conclude sion that matter and energy were one. Science, he feels, is has yet to catch up with the discovery of the mystics that even mind (or consciousness) is not different from matter, but it is only the ultimate form of energy. Is the energy of physics the same as the consciousness of the mystics ( and yogises)? Capra believes that it is, but he is cautious enough not to say so. We cannot know for sure because, Mystics understand the roots of Tao but not its branches; scientists understand its branches but not its roots.[9]

The tantricTantric thought says that human beings are the microcosmic microscopic {man as macrocosm? Yes, I’d say so} versions of the cosmos, because the finer ‘consciousness’ and the grosser ‘body’ coexist in a human being. Polarity is the key to existence, and gender division of male and female is the basic polarity in human beings. The reunification of male and female in sexual intercourse is our point of contact with the cosmic powers. Tantra uses duality as the surest path to cosmic unity. It defines our sexual function as the means of our direct connection with the divine. It reaches {capital?} RrReality by embracing illusion – our own bodies.  [Ivan – “Reality here stands for God, not god]


Tantra is unapologetic about using insanity to reach {capital?}rReality. Creation itself is divine insanity; therefore sanity has to be left outside the temple of God. Although Ttantra entered the West in 1893 through Swami Vivekananda, it was not until the 1970s that the West embraced tantrictantric insanity in a big way via Bhagwan (later Osho) Rajneesh. Rajneesh iwas as famous for his Rolls Royce fleets at his ranch in Oregon as he iwas for his book From Sex to Superconsciousness.[10] It summed up his tantrictantric creed. Rajneesh, of course, was no foolsimpleton. He had taught philosophy in an Indian university before becoming a guru. He knew that the wWestern Age of Reason had reached a dead end and that human reason by itself was incapable of knowing truth. Boldly, therefore, Rajneesh described the human mind as our chief villain. Intellect, he said, acteds like a prism. It divided one ray into many. The mind was is the source of our bondage and ignorance of the ultimate reality because it can only could see an object only by separating it from others, by labeling or categorizing it. Therefore, the aim of the religious quest according to Rajneesh iswas to ‘kill the mind,, to choose insanity.

Tantra, like other schools of Hindu thought, admits that the world is maya or unreal in a fundamental sense. However, unlike other Hindus the tantrictantric does not scorn the world as a source of temptation. He embraces it as the raw material of enlightenment. For Ttantra, the realm of maya is the only available context of liberation.

Tantra uses mantras as one of the weapons to kill the mind. Words are sounds with meaning. Mantra is The mindless repetition of words aims to sever sense from sound. Prayer is an attempt at a meaningful conversation with our Creator. Mantra is a deliberate annihilation of meaningful language by mechanical, non-personal repetition of a word or sound Professor Mircea Eliade says, All indefinite repetition leads to destruction of language; in some mystical traditions, this destruction appears to be the condition for further experiences.[11]

The sexual ritual in Ttantra is called maithuna. The ‘right hand’ tantrictantrics, also called white tantrictantrics, believe that the maithuna passages in the tantrictantric scriptures are to be understood figuratively. The ‘left-hand’ or red tantrictantrics advocate a literal enactment of the rites,. Tthough some of them would reserve it for advanced practitioners. One has to first to find an experienced guru, because the deepest tantrictantric traditions are oral, not written. Even the written texts are ambiguous. They use symbolic language called sandha-bhasha, which cannot be understood without a guru’s help. This language is intended to discourage the non-initiate and to remind the enlightened tantrictantric that the reality he seeks is beyond logical language. {Jenny: Here and elsewhere please establish consistence between single and double quotes, e.g. para after next.}


During a secret initiation ceremony the guru connects a disciple to the spiritual tradition he embodies. The ceremony may consist of the worship of the guru, receiving of a mantra, instruction for meditation and visualization, and purification of chakrachakras (psychic centers of one’s body) by the handling of a disciple’s genitals.

During maithuna a male disciple usually prefers a female tantrictantric who takes on the role of a guru. But in Ttantra it is not essential for a man to have a woman companion. For in serious Ttantra,  maithuna does not aim to achieve physical release through ejaculation and orgasm. It seeks psychic experiences by the ‘threefold immobility’ of semen, breath and consciousness. TantricTantric transcendence takes place when the mind is completely still but focused, breathing has ceased and sexual arousal is arrested at the point of maximum tension. Thus maithuna first stimulates and then traps the energies of sexual arousal to be able to release them through the channel of a still mind. This is spiritual orgasm. It does not seek to make a man and a woman ‘one flesh’. Its aim is to help fuse a tantrictantric’s own inner polarities into one; that is to give him a mystic experience of oneness. That is why most Hindu and Buddhist tantrictantrics are unmarried. They do not seek an abiding, growing, fulfilling love-relationship with a member of the opposite sex. Rajneesh said, Ttantra treateds sex as ‘simply a door. While making love to a woman, you are really making love to Existence itself. The woman is just a door; the man is just a door. [12]{Footnote}

Once you have learned to reach samadhi or superconsciousness through sex, said Rajneesh, you do not need a woman for you can have sex with the whole universe, with a tree, with the moon, with anything.[13] Footnote}Or you can simply shut yourself in a room and reach superconsciousness using the female Kkundalini within you.

Some interpreters, like Amaurey de Riencourt, see Ttantra as a celebration or affirmation of life, a human counter-attack on other life-negating forms of Yogayoga. They suggest that it was a manifestation of human instinct for self-preservation, an attempt to save India from the destructive consequences of religious outlooks, which view life as suffering, if not illusion.[14] Although there is an element of truth in this interpretation, by and large it is little more than wishful thinking. For, as Brooks Alexander wrote, Even in its affirmations, Ttantra is haunted by paradoxes. The naturalness of human life is affirmed, but only as a means for its dissolution. Human existence is validated, but only as a platform for leaving humanity behind.[15] {Footnote}

As Rajneesh admitted, and many female devotees of Muktananda have testified, a tantrictantric does not make love to a woman or a man. He uses his partner as a means of his own enlightenment, leaving him or her sexually frustrated. Shirley MacLaine, Hollywood actress and a popularizer of Ttantra, admits that sex in Ttantra is not meant to fulfill two people by uniting them in one bond. It is used by one (or both) partner(s) to discover his or her own completeness as an androgynous being so that each may become complete without the other.[16]

Tantra does unabashedly embraces human sexuality in its spirituality. But because it by using es sex for individual personal gain rather than for human bonding in lovebinding two people in love, it turns frustrates sex into frustration. It does not cause sexual fulfillmentl men and women as sexual beings, nor does it celebrate life. It seeks to deny or by transcending  the essence of what we are as male and female.



There are many forms of Yogayoga, because there are many ways of altering one’s consciousness and gaining mystical experiences. Using hallucinogenic drinks (soma) and drugs (ganja or bhang – varieties of Indian hemp or opium) [Ivan – either ganja or bhang is hashish, if you know which one do indicate] to obtain psychic experiences is a common practice among the sadhus or holy men’.   These drugs do delude them into thinking they are God. The question is, are they deluded because of the drugs, or because they began their spiritual journey with a mistaken map of reality, a false worldview?

How can we find salvation? By our own effort or by God’s grace? If it is by human effort then obviously there can be many ways. If salvation is a gift of God’s grace, then no effort on our part can qualify us to merit His grace. Grace, by definition, means unmerited favor.  

As we have seen, wWhether you define Yogayoga as an attempt to isolate the soul (purusha) from the body or nature (prakriti), or as an attempt to unite the human self with the divine self, you end with a low view of physical reality and of the human body. The logic of the yogic worldview undermines the motivation to pursue science – the study of nature – as well as the pursuit of bodily well- being.

The monistic idea that the human self is the same as the divine self and that everything is one, makes our individuality illusory, thereby destroying the very foundation for affirming the unique value of every individual. It should not surprise us that the Indian philosophical tradition, in spite of all its brilliance, could not produce a culture that recognized human rights and the intrinsic worth of every the individual. Nor could Yyogic monism give to Indian society a framework for moral absolutes, a strong sense of right and wrong, fair and unfair. Yogic exercises indeed gave flexibility to our bodies but unfortunately the yogic philosophy gave too much flexibility to our morals – making us one of the most corrupt nations in the world. That is why St. Paul wrote, physical training is of some value, but godliness has value for all things, holding promise for both the present life and the life to come.” (1 Timothy.othy 4: 8).

The pursuit of physical fitness is desirable because our bodies are a part of God’s good creation. God does want to makemade our bodies Hhis temple. The Yyogic tradition is right in making spirituality the real goal of physical training. By the same token the Western fans abuse Yogayoga when they use it only for physical fitness. The problem is not with Yyogic exercises, but with its understanding of spirituality.

God is holy – morally pure. We are sinful, not merely ignorant. We have done what we know to be wrong and not failed to do ne what we know was to be right. A holy God must judge and punish our sin. God and sin cannot co-exist anymore than light and darkness. Our need is not to altered  our consciousness, but to have our transformation of the  – the core of our being and our character transformed. YogaYoga seeks our union with God. The question is: How is that union really achieved?can a sinner be reconciled to God?

The Jews popularized the ideaBible teaches that the human problem is moral, rather than biological or metaphysical. They were taught that God created human beings good. (Would you expect anything different from an almighty Creator?) Our first parents, says id Genesis (the first book of the Bible) chose to disobey God and thereby became sinners. That trait has been transmitted to us all. Although we are still God’s image-bearers and capable of goodness, none of us is perfect. From childhood our tendency is towards evil. We need teaching and training to live moral lives. Yet, in spite of the best training, we fail morally. Our central problem, according to the biblical Bible traditionis that we are sinners. We need a divine FatherSavior who will forgive our sins and transform our inner self.

Our reconciliation  wWith God this is possible because Hhe not only created us but he also loves us. He wants to forgive our sin. That is why Jesus came and died as our substitute. He took the punishment of our sin upon himself. In order to be reconciled with God we need to repent for of our sins and accept his gracious offer of forgiveness through Christ. He will then replace our sinfulness with his godliness. This, God’s Word says, is valuable for all things – for the present life as well as for the life beyond our physical death. The salvation that Jesus offers does bring about our reunion with God. This union fulfills, not obliterates our individuality. It makes our bodies precious – temples of the living God.










adwaita = non-dualism (God and human self are not distinct)

Aing = a mantra whose meaning you are not supposed to know

atma = soul (human self)

devas =  nature spirits

Brahma = God (the Universal Self that permeats us all, including physical nature)

chakras = the six psychic centres of the body

Hrim = a mantra whose meaning you are not supposed to know

Jainism = non-Brahminical Indian religion of strict asceticism, founded c.BC600; ‘saint’ or ‘victor’

karma = good or bad deeds or destiny; past lives dictating present and future lives

kutir = hut

lila = the play of cosmic consciousness

maha = great

maithuna = the sexual ritual in tantra

mantra = chant; sacred sound or name of God to be repeated as meditation

maya =  illusion, unreal (as a dream)

Om = sound representing ultimate reality or God

padmasana = the lotus position

prakriti = physical nature

pranayam = breathing exercises

purusha = soul

sadhu = holy man, ascetic

samadhi = expanded state of consciousness.

samsara = world or life as a wheel of suffering

samkhya = Indian dualistic philosophy concerned with pure soul and impure body

sandha-bhasha = symbolic language of tantra

satsang  = the weekly gathering for fellowship and teaching

surat = soul; beauty

shabd = word; sound

siddha = perfect

Sring = a mantra whose meaning you are not supposed to know

Dear Ivan,
I am attaching the Yoga booklet. It is done except for the footnotes - 
is relatively a simple thing since all the quotations are from my Yoga
tract, Gurus book or the New Age book. If you are able to add them it 
be a big help to me, if you can't do them, do number them as you edit 
that I can fill in the blanks.
The next two weeks are extremely busy for me, so I need you to run with
this now - Getting feedback from Prabhu and perhaps one or two more
experts, working with Jenny on editing and with Borsada on cover design, 
also need to craft the back page more carefully. {what “back page”(s)?}
We had a great planning meeting today with Bob Brydges and Larry 
Brad will send the minutes of today's meetings and will work with you 
making sure that every one knows what we are doing when - we do want to 
all the ten booklets out by March 1st. This means that you have got to
drive the whole project - editing, designing, production. Bruce will 
working on publicity, promotion and marketing and he will be in touch 
Prabhu and you with details.
You can put this attached booklet in a format so that different people 
edit in different colors.
IMPORTANT - Bob Osburn suggests that we have the SAR meeting on Sunday 
4th after lunch. Can you please send out the notice. We can send the 
later. Feb 2-3 is L'Abri conf. it will be great if Silvia, you & LT 
able to join us there - Prabhu and I are speaking. There will be about 
people and we should have good booksales.
In haste - Vishal


[1] The monistic God does not have a name. For a name distinguishes one entity from another. But in monism there is only one ultimate reality. Only finite demigods can have names. From their ultimate standpoint they are as unreal as we are.

[2] Vishal Mangalwadi, The World of Gurus  (Mumbai: GLS Publishing, 1999) Revised edition, pp. 96ff.

[3] See his famous The Varieties of Religious Experience: A Study in Human Nature, Being the Gifford Lectures on Natural Religion Delivered at Edinburgh (London and Cambridge, Mass: Longman’s & Co, 1902), p. 410f.

[4] Amma, Swami Muktananda Paramhamsa (Ganeshpuri, 1971) p. 32ff.

[5] Ibid.

[6] S. Radhakrishnan and Charles A. Moore (eds.), A Source Book in Indian Philosophy (Princeton: Princeton University Press and Bombay: Oxford University Press, 1957).

[7] Fritjof Capra, The Tao of Physics (London: Flamingo, 1990).

[8] Ibid. p. 322.

[9] Ibid. p. 338.

[10] See Vishal Mangalwadi, The World of Gurus (Landour, Mussoorie: Good Books, 1987), ch. 7.

[11] Cited in Brooks Alexander, ‘Tantra: the Worship and Occult Power of Sex’, SCP Newsletter vol. 2, no. 2 (Summer 1985).

[12] Bhagwan Sri Rajneesh, Neo-Sanyasa 2,4 (1973), p. 20.

[13] Ibid.

[14] Amaury de Riencourt, The Soul of India (London: Honeyglen Publishing, 1985).

[15] Alexander, ‘Tantra: the Worship and Occult Power of Sex’.

[16] See Shirley MacLaine, Going Within: a Guide for Inner Transformation (New York: Bantam Books, 1990).


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