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1. Some declare, that a student shall bathe after (having acquired) the knowledge of the Veda, (however long or short the time of his studentship may have been).

2. (He may) also (bathe) after having kept the student's vow for forty-eight, (thirty-six or twenty-four) years, (though he may not have mastered the Veda).

Some declare, that the student (shall bathe) after (having acquired) the knowledge of the Veda and after (the expiration of) his vow.

[30. 1. The bath is taken at the end of the studentship, and forms part of the Sam‚vartana-ceremony. From this rite a student who has completed his course of study derives the name Sn‚taka, 'one who has bathed.' See also Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 125.]

4. To all those persons who have bathed (In accordance with any of the above rules must be shown) the honour clue to a Sn‚taka.

5. The reverence (shown to a Sn‚taka) brings, however, different rewards according to the degree of devotion or of learning (possessed by the person honoured).

6. Now follow the observances (chiefly to be kept) by a Sn‚taka.

7. He shall usually enter the village and leave it by the eastern or the northern gate.

8. During the morning and evening twilights, he shall sit outside the village, and not speak anything (referring to worldly matters).

9. (But an Agnihotri, who is occupied at home by oblations in the morning and evening, must not go out; for) in the case of a conflict (of duties), that enjoined by the Veda is the more important.

10. He shall avoid all dyed dresses,

11. And all naturally black cloth.

12. He shall wear a dress that is neither shining,

13. Nor despicable, if he is able (to afford it).

14. And in the day-time he shall avoid to wrap up his head, except when voiding excrements.

15. But when voiding excrements, he shall envelop his head and place some (grass or the like) on the ground.

16. He shall not void excrements in the shade (of a tree, where travellers rest).

[10. The rule to wear white garments is given Y‚gñ. I, 131; Manu IV, 35. 33.

13. Manu IV, 34.

15. Manu IV, 49.]

17. But he may discharge urine on his own shadow.

18. He shall not void excrements with his shoes on, nor on a ploughed field, nor on a path, nor in water.

19. He shall also avoid to spit into, or to have connection with a woman in water.

20. He shall not void excrements facing the fire, the sun, water, a Br‚hmana, cows, or (images of) the gods.

21. He shall avoid to clean his body from excrements with a stone, a clod of earth, or with (boughs of) herbs or trees which he has broken off, whilst they were on the tree and full of sap.

22. If possible, he shall not stretch out his feet towards a fire, water, a Br‚hmana, a cow, (iniages of) the gods, a door, or against the wind.

23. Now they quote also (the following verse):

[18. Manu IV, 45, 46; Y‚gñ. I, 137.

19. Manu IV, 56.

20. Manu IV, 48, 52; Y‚gñ. I, 134.

22. The prohibition to stretch the feet towards a fire occurs also Manu IV, 53; Y‚gñ. I, 137.]