This chapter describes the sin involved in the killing of birds and the ways to expiate it.
KRONCH SAARAS HANSAASCHA CHAKRAVAAKAM CHA KUKUTAM ||
JAALPAADAM CHA SHARBHAM HATVAAHORATRAH SHUCHIH ||
Meaning- One must observe a day’s fast to get purified from the sin of killing a heron, crane, swan, geese, cock, hen, duck and grasshoppers.
Killing of peafowl is even severe sin. One must worship Lord Shankar to get free from the sin of killing a peafowl.
This chapter deals with the matter of purifying water bodies. In the opinion of sage Parashar, purification of ponds etc. can be achieved thus.
VAAPIKUPTAGESHU DUSHITESHU KATHACHAN ||
UDDHYATYA VAI KUMBHARAATAM PANCHGYEN SHUDDYATI ||
Meaning- If a small pond, well or tank has been soiled somehow, take out one hundred pitcher full of water from them and add cow’s dung, urine, milk and curd, ghee and honey to purify the water.
This chapter describes the expiation for the sins committed unknowingly. It asserts that such sins should not be hidden because such a practice only adds to the sins. If a cow or an ox dies while tethering or yoking, expiation is necessary because those animals were under the honour and assisting him. Religious polymaths say:
Meaning- To expiate for the sin, a Kshatriya and a Vaishya must take a bath fully dressed silently and appear as such before the jury. If the same is suspected, sage Parashar dictates that it must be expiated for leaving the food.
In this chapter, sage Parashar writes about the expiation for the sin of killing a cow.
Meaning- If the cow or an ox dies due to forceful enclosure, tethering, yoking and killed deliberately, a sin equal to killing a cow results. One must observe a fast for a quarter of a day if death of the cow is due to forceful enclosure. For the death due to tethering, fast for half a day is required. If yoking is the cause of death, fast for three-quarters of a day and for deliberate killing, fast for a full day.
MUNDAN (shaving of head hair) : During the fast for a quarter of a day, removal of bodily hairs is required. For the fast of half day, shaving of the bodily hair, moustache and beard is required. Donation of a bull is required for the fast of three-quarters of a day while donation of two cows is required for a full day fast.
DONATION: One must donate a pair of clothes- (dhoti and kurta) to a Brahmin to complete the fast of a quarter day and a saucer of bronze to complete the fast of half day.
The tenth chapter describes the expiation required to wash the sins of having illegal carnal relations with women other than the wife. Sage Parashar, it seems, had known that it would be a characterizing feature of Kali Yuga. Hence, he says
Meaning- A man who has relations with other women than his wife, can get purified only by observing Chandrayan Vrata (a fast devoted to the moon).
Those Brahmins, who have illegal carnal relations with the women of low caste must observe a fast for three days and three nights continuously. Then, he must get shaven of his head hair including the normal tuft of hair left otherwise. And ultimately, he should observe to Prajapatya Vrata .
Sage Parashar has prohibited the intake of polluted food and cereals of Shudras. Provision of expiating the sins related to these two activities has therefore come into practice.
Meaning- If one has a nightmare in which he sees himself vomiting, getting shaven, having intercourse or sees smokes rising above a cremation ground, one should get purified by taking proper bath. Taking a proper bath, ill effects of a nightmare are removed.
Meaning- If someone of Brahmin, Kshatriya and Vaishya class consumes urine or wine unknowingly, he must begin his consecrations afresh. In the purification rituals, one doesn’t have to wear buck’s skin, waistline, stick, fast etc. Prajaapatya Vrata is sufficient to get free from such sin.
Bath: Five types of bath have been identified.
Meaning- Five types of bath like Agneya, Vaarun, Braahma, Vayavya and Divya have been described as sacred by our great sages.
Smearing of whole body with ash is Agneya bath. Bathing in water is known as Vaarun bath. Sprinkling of water on the body is known as Braahma bath whereas exposing the body to the dust rising due to impact of cow’s hooves is known as Vayavya bath. Bathing in rainfall under the sun is Divya bath.
STUDY OF VEDAS BY UNDESERVING PEOPLE
If a Brahmin doesn’t make offering to the sacred fire regularly, doesn’t pray every evening and morning and doesn’t study the Vedas, he is more a Shudra than a Brahmin. Such a Brahmin is powerless and Smriti allows certain flexibility to such a Brahmin for the study of the Vedas.
Meaning- A man, though healthy and sound because of eating Shudra’s cereals, cannot meet fortune no matter how much he studies Vedas or makes offering to the sacred fire.
NORMS FOR EATING
If a person, who has resolved to dine silently, speaks or has to speak during his meal must get up at once. All the people dining together must stand up together after finishing their meal.
ASNAATVAA NAIV BHUNJEET HYAJAPTVAAGNIMAHUYA CHA ||
PARNAPRISHTHE NA BHUNJEET RATRAU DEEPAM VINA TATHAH ||
Meaning- It is not proper to dine without taking bath, reciting the name of God and making offerings to the sacred fire. One should not eat on the reverse side of plantain and without proper lighting during the night.
NORMS FOR EARNING MONEY
One should not take to just any means to earn money. Wisdom is said to be earning with due contemplation on religion and only as much as is required to raise the family.
NYAYOPAARJITVITTEN KARTAVYAM HYATMARAKSHANAM ||
ANYAAYEN TU YO JIVETSARVKARMABAHISHKRITAH ||
Meaning- Religion is earning money by just means to preserve one’s soul and foster one’s family. One, who runs his life by unjust means stays away from the pious deeds. Unjust means add to irreligion and irreligion leads to loss of life.
DECISION OF EXPIATIONS
The sin of snatching the land from the powerless people cannot be washed away from digging hundreds of ponds. Drinking water directly immersing mouth in the river is also forbidden.
Meaning- If a stupid Brahmin drinks water directly immersing his mouth in the river despite having hands, he certainly takes birth in a dog’s incarnation.
One should observe a fast for a day for having eaten cereals of a characterless Brahmin. If a woman comes in menses within eighteen days of the previous one, she can get purified by taking a bath. A Brahmin, who has stolen gold must go to the court with a mortar and confess his crime before the king. He is purified now, whether or not the king hits him with the mortar.
Thus, Parashar Smriti shows the people of Kali Yuga, the way of religious conduct. And the people follow the dictates of this Smriti with respect.