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Full text of "Ancient India As Described By Megasthenes And Arrian by Mccrindle, J. W"












JReprmfei (with additions) from the " Indian 
Antiquary," 1876-7o*. 

^EB, SPINK % (ft, THlpjfeHE 4;C 


II II L... I J I M., | 

The Ramakrishna Mission 
Institute of Culture Library 

Presented by 

Dr. Baridbaran Mukerji 














JReprmfei (with additions) from the " Indian 
Antiquary," 1876-7o*. 

^EB, SPINK % (ft, THlpjfeHE 4;C 






V U E F A a 

i ^lt<3 

i;t. Card 

ll»iv. > ! i 




Tint account of India written by Megas- 
thenfis from his porsonal knowledge of the 
country is justly lield to bo almost invalu- 
able fot the light which it throws upon the. 
obscurity of early Indian history. Though, 
unfortunately, not extant in its original 
form, it has nevertheless been partially 
preserved by means of epitomes and quota- 
tions to bo found scattered up and down 
the writings of various ancient authors, 
both Greek and Roman. Dr. Schwanbcck, 
of Bonn, rendered historical literature a good 
service by collecting and .arranging in their 
proper order these detached fragments. 
The work thus reconstructed, and entitled 
Megaslhcnis Inillea, has now been before 
tho world for upwards of thirty years. It has 
not, however, so far as I know, been as yet 
translated, at least into our language, and 
Jjgggo it is but little known beyond the 
circles of tho learned. Tho translation now 
offered, which goes forth from the very birth- 
place of the original work, will therefore for 
the first time place it within the reach'of the 
general public. 



A translation of the first part of the 
Indilea of Arrian has been subjoined, both 
bocauso it gives in a connected form a 
general description of Infta, and because 
that description was based chiofly on the 
work of Megasthenfis. 

Tho notes, which turn for tho most part on 
points of history, geography, archaoology, 
and the identification of Greek proper 
names with their Sanskrit originals, sum up 
the views of the best and most recent 
authorities who have written on these sub- 
jects. This feature of the work will, I hope, 
recommend it to the attention of native 
scholars who may be pursuing, or at least 
be interested in, inquiries which relate to 
the history and antiquities of their own 

In tho spelling of classical proper names 

I have followed throughout the system of 

Grote, except oidy in translating from Latin, 

when tho common orthography has been 


In conclusion, I may inform my readers 
that I undertook the present work intending 
to follow it up with others of a similar kind, 
c until l!he entire series of classical works re- 
lating to India should be translated into the 

PREFACE. "> y 

language of its rulers. In furtherance of 
this design a translation of the short trea- 
tise called The Circumnavigation of the 
Erythraean Sea,%v/hioh gives an account of 
the ancient commerce of Egypt, Arabia, and 
India, is nearly ready for publication, and 
this will be followed by a translation of the 
narratives of the Makedonian Invasion of 
India as given by Arrian and Curtius in 
their respective Histories of Alexander. 



Introduction* 3 

Frag. I. An Epitome of Megasthencs ... 30 

Frag. LB Concerning Dionysos 36 

Frag. II. Of the Boundaries of India, its 
general Character, and its 

Hirers 45 

Frag. III. Of the Boundaries of India ... 48 
Frag. IV. Of the Boundaries and Extent 

of India 48 

Frag. V. Of the Size of India 51 

Frag. VI. Of the Sizo of India 51 

Frag. VII. Of the Size of India 52 

Frag. VIII. Of the Size of India 52 

Frag. IX. Of the setting of the Bear, and 
shadows falling in contrary 

directions 52 

Frag. X. Of the setting of the Bear 63 

Frag. XL Of the Fertility of India 54 

Frag. XII. Of Bonu> Wild Beasts of India.. 56 

Frag. XIII. Of Indian Apes 57 

Frag. XIII. B 57 

Frag. XIV. Of Winged Scorpions and Ser- 
pents 58 ' 

9k$» XV. OftheBeasts'of India, and the 

Eced 58 

Frag. XV. B Of som* Beasts of India^ 59 

Frag. XVI. Of the Boa-Constrictor . 61 

•Frag. XVII. Of the Electric Eel X. 61* 

Frag. XVIII. Of Taprobane 1 ,/fe 



Frag. XTX. Of Marine Trees 63 

Frag. XX. Of the Iwlud and tlic Ganges* (i',i 

Frag. XX. B GR 

Frag. XXL. Of the Kircr bilas 65 

Frag. XXn. Of tho Hirer Silas ; «5 

Frag. X XIII. Of tho Hirer Silas 66 

Frag. XXIV. Of the .Number of Indian 

Hirers 66 

Frag. XXV. Of tho city TAfcnlipulra 66 

Frag. XXVI. Of Kifcaliputra, and the Man- 
ners of tlic; Indians.... 67 

Frag. XXVJI. Of the Manners of tho In- 
dians fii» 

Frag. XXVI I. Ji W 

Frag. XXVII. 73 

Fvag. XXVL1.J) n 

Frag. XXVIII. Of the Suppers of the In- 
dians. 74 

Frag. XXIX. • Of Fabulous Tribes 71 

Frag. XXX. Of Kubulous liaces 7i» 

Frag. XXX. B 82 

Frag. XXXI. Of thn race of Men without 

Mouths 8ii 

Frag. XXXTI. Of tho seven Castes among 

the Indians 83 

Frag XXX1TI. Of the seven Castes among 

the Indians 83 

Frag. XXX1Y. Of the Administration* v," 
Pnblie Affairs — of the use 
of Horses and Elephants . 86 
Frag. XXXV. Of the use of Horses and 

Elephants 89 

Fiv- xxx V ' 1 0f Elephants 90 

'.ON'J'KNTK. > IX 


Frag. XXXYI1. Of Elephants !.»;{ 

FYag. XXXV1I.B S»3 

Frag. XXX VIII. Of the JJnseascs of Ele- 

pMmnts !>3 

Fray. XXXIX. OHIoM-digging Ants i»-t 

Frag. XL. Of (iold-digging Ants Mi 

Fmg. XL.U <Mi 

Frag. XLl. Of the Indian Philosophers !>7 
Frag. XL1.I. Of the Indian i'liilosoplicrs 10:? 

fling. XLll.1t 101. 

Vrag. Xlill.C Hl4 

Frag. XLIII. Of the Indian Philosophers 104 
Frag. XLIV. Of Kalanos and Maintains. 10ft 
Frag. XLV. Of Kalanos and Man- 

danis ](>r* 115 

Fmg. XIYV1. That tlio Indians liad never 
been attacked by others, 
nor had themselves at- 
tacked others 10" 

Frag. XTiYIl. That the Indians had never 
been attacked by others, 
nor had themselves at- 
tached oLliors 112 

Frag. XL V III. Of Nalmdiodrosur 112 

Frag. XLVTII.B .' 112 

Frag. XLVIII.C in 

Frag. XLVT.1I.D , 113 

Ffag.* XLFX. 01' NalmkodroMor ...'. 113 

Frag. L. Of the Indian ltaees — of 
Dionysos — of HeraklCs — 
of Pearls— of tlio Pandai- 
nn Land -of the Aneicni. 
Ilistorv of the Indians „./il4 




Frag. L. li Ofl'oaritt Ill 

Frag. Id. <K fbe I'audaian Land 114 

Frag. L. C Of the Ancient History of tin; 

Indians ' : .* 11A 

Frag. LJ.I. Of Elephants 117 

Frag. LIU. Of a White Flopluuit 118 

Frag. LIV. Of the llralimans and their 

Philosophy 120 

Frag. LV. Of Kalauos and Mandanis 12:1 

Frag. LV. ii 12/ 

Frag. LVI. List of the Indian Hares 12tf 

Frag. LVf.IJ 154 

Frag. LVI I. Or Dimiytsoa 157 

Frag. LVI 1 1. Ofllereules and Tnnriroa 158 

Frag. LIX. Of the Leasts of Imlia W.) 



rntrodnetion. ' 177 

Cap. I. Of Indian Tribes west of the 

Indus 179 

„ II. Of the Boundaries of India ... 1 HI 

„ III. Of the Size' of India 1S4 

„ IV. Oft! io Indus and Ganges and 

their Tributaries 186 

„ V. Of: the Legendary History of 

India 1M4> 

„ VI. Of the River Silas— of tnc 
Rains in India, and Inun- 
dations of the Rivers — of 
the Likeness between the 
' Indians and the Ethio- 
•». pians 1% 


"ONTKflTS. > XI 


VI.I.-1X. OI'DioiH'SosamUleraklcs ... 1!W 
X. Of Indian (.'itics, especially 

I'alimboihra L»01 

XI. XII. Of th,i seven Indian (Pastes ... 20S 

XIII. »Of the, Indian mode of hunt- 

ing the Elephant -L-I 

XIV. Or the docility of the Repliant, 

its habits, diseased, tfce. ... 1l?> 

XV. <)[' Tigers, of Autij that dig 

for gold, and Serpents 217 

XVI. Of Ihi! .Dress of flic Indians, 

and how they equip thcin- 
<( i lves Cor war, and manage 

t.lu'ir Horses l'ID 

XVJI. 01' the modes uf Travelling in 
India of Female 1'iicJihs- 
rily — of tliv Marriiige(!m-- 
tnins of the Indian;-, and 
(he nature of their Food. 
Com 'hiding Remark :'Jl 



'riio ancient Greeks, till even a comparatively 
late period in their history, possessed little, if any, 
real knowledge of India. It is indeed scarcely so 
much as mentioned by name in their greatest poets, 
whether epic, lyric, or dramatic. They must, how- 
ever, have known of its existence as early as the 
heroic times, for we find from Homer that they 
usodeveri then articles oflndian merchandize, which 
went among them by names oflndian origin, such 
as kntsiteros, tin, and plephas, ivory.* .But their 
conception of it, as wo gather from the same source, 
was vague in the extreme. They imagined it to 
be an Eastern Ethiopia which stretched away to 
the uttermost verge of the world, and which, like 
the Ethiopia of the West, was inhabited by a race 
of men whoso visages were scorched black by the 

* Kassitcros represents tho Sanskrit kmUm, ' tin/ a 
metal found in abundance in the islands, on the coiut of 
Ifldia; m&clcphcts is undoubtedly connected with ibluP, tho 
Sanskrit name for the domestic elephant— its initial 
syllable being perhaps the Arabic article. 


fierce rays of the sun.f Much lies in a name, and 
the error made by the Greeks in thus calling India 
E t h i o p ia led them into the further error of con- 
sidering as pertinent to both these countries 
narrations, whether of fact or fiction, which con- 
cerned but one of thom exclusively. < This explains 
why we find in (»reek literature mention of peculiar 
or fabulous races, both of men and other animals, 
which existed apparently in duplicate, being repre- 
sented sometimes as located in India, and sometimes 
in .Ethiopiaor the countries thereto adjacent.J We 
ran hardly wonder, when we consider thodistantand 
sequestered situation of India, that the first con- 
ceptions which the Greeks had of it should have 
been of this nebulous character, but it seems some- 

"t Soc llomer, Od. I. 23-24, where wc read 

tilOiants, roi bix^a deSaiarai, confirm tlv8p£>v, 
Ot ftiv Svtroptvov 'Ywpws oi ffdviovroi'. 

(The Ethiopians, who arc divided iuti> two, aud live at tho 
world's cud — one part of them towards tho setting snn, the 
other towards tho rising.) Herodotus in several passage 
mentions tho .Eastern Ethiopians, but distinguish™ them 
from tho Indians (see particularly bk. vii. 70). Ktesias, 
however, who wro^o somewhat later than llcrudotos, fre- 
tl\uvatly ca\\s tho Indians \>v, the tuuui 1 . of Yithio\>ians, and 
tho final discrimination between the two races was notmado 
till tho Makndonian invasion gavo the Western world more 
correct views of India. Alexander himself, as we learn 
from Strabo, on first reaching tho Indus mistook it for 
tho Nile. 

X Instances in point are the Skiapudos, Kynamolgoi, 
Fygmaioi, Psylloi, Tfiinantopodes, Sternophtlialmoi, nfa- 
krobioi, and the Makrokephaloi, the Martikhora, and the 

what remarkable that thoy should haves learned 
hardly anything of importance regarding it from 
the expeditions which worn successively under- 
taken against it by the Egyptians under Sosostris, 
the Assyrians under Somiramis, and the Persians 
iirsfc under K^rroa and afterwards under Darcios 
tho son of J.[yataspes.§ Perhaps, as Dr. "Robertson 
has observed, they disdained, through pride of 
their own superior enlightenment, to pay attention 
to the transactions of people whom thoy considered 
as barbarians, especially in countries far remote 
from their own. JJut, in whatever way tho fact may 
be accounted for, India continued to be to the 
(.{reeks little better than a land ol! mystery and 
fable till tho times of the .Persian wars, when for 
tho first time they became distinctly awaro of its 
existence. The first historian who speaks clearly 
of it is JTekafcaios of Miletos (iu:. oi a -48<j),|| 

§ HorudotoM mentions Hint Darcioa, before invading 
Imlin, went Skylax tlio Karynmlian on a voyjigoof discovery 
down the Indus, and that Mkylux accordingly, sotting out 
from Kaspatyras and the Paktyikan district, reached ilm 
liioutli of that river, whence ho sailed through tho Indian 
Ocean to tho lied Sea, perform! rig tho wlmlo voyage in 
thirty months. A little work still evtant, which briefly de- 
scribes certain countries in Vjnvope, Asia, and Africa, bears 
tho name of luw Wkylas, out from internal evidence it lew 
been inferred that it could not have been written lieforo 
tho reign of 1'bilip of Makcdoniu, tlio father of Alexander 
tlie Great. 

|| The following names perbiraiiig to India occur in He- 
kataios:— tlio Imlim ; tho Opini, a race o* Hie banks of the 
Indus; the KulntUii, an India* nine; Kaitpnpij ntn.a Gnu- 
daric city ; Arijixnh", a city of Itulfa; the likiopBtlcsi, and 
probably the I'yymica. 

and fuller accouiitsa.ru preserved iu llp-rodo- 
t o s^[ and in Uic rcniaius of K t c s i a s, who, having 
lived for some years iu Persia as private physician 
to king Artaxorxcs Mueuion, collected materials 
during his atay for a treatise on India, the first 
work ou the subject written in tb/» Greek lan- 
guage.* His descriptions were, unfortunately, 
vitiated by a large intermixture of fable, and it was 
left to the followers of Alexander to give to the 
Western world for the first tirao fairly accurate 
accounts of the country and its inhabitants. The 
great conqueror, it is well known, carried scientific 
men with him to chronicle his achievements, atid 
describe the countries to which he might carry his 
arms, and some of his officers were also men of 
literary culture, who could wield the pen as well as 

If Horodotos mentions tho vloer (Indus), llio I'ulrtijihvn 
dtilrict, the (laml&rioi, tho KtUnvtiai or Ksilidiai, mid the 
Vihlaioi. Both Uebitaios and Herodotus agree iu slating 
that there wore sandy deserts in India. 

* "Tho few particulars appropriate to India, and con- 
tsistcnt with truth, obtained by Ctcsias, are almost uoiilined 
to somctliing resembling a description of the cochineal 
plant, the fly, and the beautiful iin!> ol)taiued from it, with 
a genuine picture of the monkey and tho parrot; tho two 
animals he had doubtless sccu in Persia, ami flowered 
cottons cnibla zoned with tho glowing colours of tho modern 
chintz wore probably as much eovoted by the fair Persians 
iu tho harams of Sum and Eobataua as they still are 
by the ladies of our own country ; . . . . but wc are not 
bound to admit his fable of the Martiehora, his pygmies-', 
bis men with the heads of dogs, and feet reversed, hi.; 
grifliiis, and his four-footed birds as bi;r u& wtilvej." — 

the sword. Hence the expedition produced quite h 
as those of 7$ a c t o, D i o g u o t n s , N c nrc It o s, 
O n c 3 i k r i t o s, A r i s I o b o a 1 o s, K a 1 1 i a t h e- 
u i 1 8, and others. These works aro all lost, but 
their substance is to be found condensed in Strabo, 
I'liny, and Arrion. Subsequent to these writers 
were some others, who made considerable additions 
to the stock of information regarding India, among 
whom may bo mentioned Dei in a u h o s, who re- 
sided for a long time in I* a 1 i b o t li r a, whither lie 
was sent on an embassy by Selcukos to A 1 1 i t vo- 
n hades, the successor of Sandrakottos; 
V a t r o k 1 fi s, the admiral of Sclonkos, who is 
tailed by Strabo the least mendacious of all writers 
eoneorning India; Timos the no s, admiral of 
the fleet of Ptolcmaios Philadelphos ; and Mogas- 
thenes, wlio being sent by Sclcukos Nikator on an 
embassy to Sandrakottos (Chaudragiiptahf the 
king of the T'rusii, whoso capital was Palihothra 
iPataliputra, now Patau), wrote a work on India of 
sncli acknowledged worth that it formed the prin- 
cipal source whence succeeding writers drew their 
accounts of the country. This work, which appears 

t The discovery that the Sandrokottos of the Greeks 
was identical with the Chaudragu;ita wlio figures in the 
Sanskrit annuls and the Sanskrit drama was one of great 
moment, as it was (lie means of connecting Greek with 
Sauskrit literature, smd of thereby supplying for the first 
time a date to early Indian history, which hail nor a single 
chronological landmark of its own. Diodftrns distorts the 
hiirnc. into Xandrnnics, and this again is distorted l»y (hirtuiH 
into Agrarimos. 

io have boon entitled r« 'ImWi, no longer exists, but 
it has boon so often abridged and quoted by the 
ancient writers that wo have n fair knowledge of 
its contents and their' order of arrangement. Dr. 
Sehwanbock, with great industry aTid learning, has 
collected all the fragments that liave been anywhere 
preserved, and has prefixed to the oolloetion aLatin 
Introduction, wherein, after showing what know- 
ledge the Greeks had acquired of India before. 
Megasthcnes, ho enters into an examination of 
those 2)n.ssages in ancient works from which we 
derive all the little we know of Megasthcnes and 
his radian mission, lie then reviews his work on 
India, giving a summary of its contents, and, hav- 
ing estimated its value and authority, concludes 
with a notice of those authors who wrote on India 
after his timc.J I have translated in the latter 
part of the sequel a few instructive passages from 
this Introduction, one particularly which success- 
fully vindicates Megasthcnes from tbo charge of 
mendacity so frequently preferred against him. 
Meanwhile the following extracts, translated from 
0. Midler's Preface to bis edition of tbo IntHha, 
will place before the reader all the information that 
can be gleaned regarding Megasthcnes and his 
embassy from a careful scrutiny and comparison of 
all the ancient texts which relate thereto. 

.Tustinus (XV. 4) says of Scloukos Nikator, 

I Ho onnmoratps Eratosthenes, ITippavclios, J'uli'iuo, 
M iiuspom, Anolloiloros, A^athai-chidi's, Alexander Polyhiutur, 
>Sli'!ilio, Marinos of Tyre, aud Plulwny among the UreekK, 
uid P. 'LVrcntiiiH VsiiTo of Atiix, M. Vip»anin» Atfrippa,, 
P«'iii|finiur; Mt^la, iSt'in'ca, Pliny, and Suliuns inming tilt 


' He cai'i'iml on- many iwrs ht Hie East after ike 
'h'uhlon of fcho Makedonian kingdom between 
iii nisei f ami the oilier successors of Alexander, 
first seizing Babylonia, and* then reducing Bak- 
triane, his power being increased by the first suc- 
cess. Thorealifcer he passed into India, which 
had, since Alexander's death, killed its governors, 
thinking thereby to shake oil' from its neck the 
yoke of slavery. & a n d r o k o 1 1 o s had made it 
free : butVhcu victory was gained he changed the 
name of freedom to that of bondage, for ho him- 
self oppressed with servitude the very people 
which ho had rescued from foreign dominion . . 
Sandrokottos, having thus gained the crown, 
held India at the time when Hcleukos was laying 
the foundations of his future greatness. Seloukos 
came to an agreement with him, and, alter set- 
tling affairs in the East, engaged in the war 
against Antigonos (W2 j?.c.).' 

" Besides Justinus, A p p i a n u s (Syr. c. 55) 
makes mention of the war which Selcnkos had 
with fcJandrolcottos or h and ragu p ta king 
of the 1'rasii, or, as they arc called in the 
Indian language, P r a c h y a s*:— ' I lo (Seleu - 

* The adjootn'o 7rpaP,uiKv<: in /Eliafms Ow. Ihe N-iln.re oj 
Aihim'ila, xvJi.S9(Mi?}?:«sthi'ti. P'ragm. IS. inil.) hi ".i re a wry 
'■losio rcaenililnncv to the Indian word I'r Anli yas (that 
is 'dwcllnn in the U:\m,'). Tin- subalasilivn would bo fl/>«^t- 
it, and SnliWiinbcfk {Mryislhrtti.i Iadic-t, p. H2) thinks 
that this muling should probably bo restored in KtopbanuA 
of Byzantium, where tlio MSS. cxliibii. rijinirtot, j. Form 
intcrmt'diate between rJpu£tAos and FI/mw. But tlioy an* 
called TLpaaim by Sti'fibo, Arrianus, and I'linius ; H/inio-ioi 
in Plutarch (Ah>\ chap. 02), suid frequently iu vUliamw ; 
Tipavmni by Nicnlsuu of Damascus, and in Hie Morilii- 
jiuM of Stnb,PU!'-, '57, 38; B ( )«iiTio( and Rjhu'o-wi art'. the 


kos) crossed the Indus and waged war or» 
Sandrokottos, king of the Indiana who dwelt 
about it, until he made friends and entered 
into relations of marriage with him.' So also 
Straho (xv. p. 724) : — ' Seleukos Nikator gave to 
Sandrokottos' {ec. a large part of Ariaiio). Con I', 
p. 689 : — ' The Indians afterwards held a largo part 
of Ariaue, (which they had received from the 
Makedonians), ' entering into marriage relations 
with him, and receiving in return live huudred 
elephants' (of which Sandrakottos had niue thou- 
sand— Plinius, vi. 22-5); and Plutarch, Alex. 6*2 :— 
■ For not long after, A n d r o k o 1 1 o s, being king, 
presented Seleukos with live hundred elephants, 
and with six huudred thousand men attacked and 
subdued all India.' Phylarohos (r'ragm. 28) in 
Athenajus, p. 18 I)., refers to some other wonder- 
ful enough presents aa being sent to Seleukos by 

"Diodorus (lib. xx.), in setting forth the aQ'airs 
of Seleukos, has not said a single word about 
the Indian war. But it would be strange that 
that expedition should be mentioned so incidentally 
by other historians, if it Avero true, as many recent 
writers have contended, that Seleukos in this war 
reached the middle of India as far as the G a n g c s 
and the town P a 1 i m b o t h r a, — nay, oven advanc- 
ed as far as the mouths of the Gauges, and there- 
fore loft Alexander far behind him. This baseless 
theory has been well refuted by Lassen (De Pentap. 
Lid. fil), by A. G. Schlegel (Berliner Calender, 

MS. ^readings in Diodorua, xvii. 93; Pharra*ii id 
Curtius, IX. ii. 3 ; I* r ;e 3 i d j» in Jastinua, XII. viii. 9. See 
note on Fragiu. 1&. 


1829, p. 31 ij'Ptsee Benfey, Kwh. n. Griilrr. Eneyri. 
v. IihHpu, p. 67), anil quite recently by Hchwau- 
beck, in a work of great learning and value en- 
titled Mvgadhi'iris hult'cn (Honii, 184U). Tn the first 
place, Schwanbeck (p. 13) mentions the passage 
of Jnstinus (I.«ii. 10) where it is said tliat no one 
had entered India but Semiramis and Alexander ; 
whence it would appear that the expedition 
of Selenkos was considered so insignificant by 
Tragus as not oven to be on a par with the Tndian 
war of Alexander ,f Then he says that Arrianns, 
if ho had known of that remote expedition 
of Selenkos, would doubtless have spoken dif- 
ferently in his Indlht (c. S. 4), where he says 
that Mcgasthenes did not travel over much of 
India, ' but yet more than those who invaded it 
along with Alexander the sou or Philip.' Now in 
this passage the author conld have compared Meg- 
asthenes much more suitably and easily with Selcu- 
kos. % 1 pass over other proofs of less moment, nor 

f Moreover, Sehwanbeek calls attention (p. 14) to the 
words of Appiauns(i. 1), whom when bo says, somewhat in- 
accurately, that S.vndrakottos waskingof the Indians n round 
♦ he Indus (tw rttpi top *\vhi>v 'IvfiStv) he seems to moan 
that the war was carried on on the boundaries of India. But 
this is of uo importance, for Appionns hsis tS>v irtpi avrou 
'ivSStv, 'of tie lutHmi.' <i,r:mv<1 it-,' as Schwanbeck himself 
has written it (p. 13). 

I The following passage of the Inoian comedy MndrA- 
■M.iha.vi seems to favour tho Indian expedition : — " Mean- 
while Kusmuapura (i.e. P/italipulra, Palimbotbra) the city 
of Chandra gupla and tho king of tho mountain regions, 
was invested on every side, by tho Kiriitns, Yavaiias, Kaiubo- 
jas, Persians, Baktriatis, and tho rest." But " that drama" 
(Schwanbeck, p. 18), "to Follow the authority of Wilson, waa 
written in the tenth century after Christ,— certainly ten cen- 
turies after Selenkos. When even the Indian historians have 
no authority in history, what proof can dramas give written 


indeed i.s it expedient to set forth iu detail hero ali 
the reasons ironi wliich it is improbable of itself 
that the arms of Seleukos ever reached the region 
of the Ganges, [jet us now examine the passage, 
in 1'linitiH wind) causes man; to adopt contrary 
opinions. Plinius (///*>■/.. Nnl. vi. 21 J, after finding 
from Diognetos and Haeto the distances of the 
places from Porta) Onspiso to the Uuphasis, the 
end of Alexander's march, thus proceeds : — ' The 
other journeys made for Neloukos Nikatorareas 
follows : -One hnndred and sixty-eight miles to 
the Hesidrns, and to the river Jomanes as many 
(some copies add live miles); from thence to 
the Gauges one hundred arid twelve miles. One 
hundred and nineteen miles to the Rhodopbas 
(others give three hundred and twenty-live miles 
for this distance). To the town K a, I in i pa x a, 
one hundred and si \ty -seven, five hundred 
(others give two hundred and sixty-live miles), and 
from thence to the continence of the .fbinancH 
and Ganges six hundred and twenty-five miles 
(several add thirteen miles), and to the town Pa- 
limbotlir.ii four hundred and twenty-five. To 
the mouth of the Ganges six hundred and thirty - 
eight' (or seven hnndred and thirty-eight, to 

after many ceulnries? Vu v a n a a, which was also iu later 
times the Indian name for the CirOekK, was very anciently 
tho iwnift tri\ on to a certain nation whirl) the Indians say 
dwelt on thi) north-western boundaries of India; and the 
samo nation (Jlhinu, x. -14) is also numbered with the 
Kambojas, the Sakus, the I'arudyH, the I'allavan, and tho 
Kinitns as being corrupted nmoiu; the Kshatriya*. (Gonf . 
Lassen, Zrilrr.hfijl fiir d. h' unite den MiirijuulAiulen, III 
p. 24.VJ The-'f! Yavanaa arc to bo undorsljiod iu this pi.s- 
eagc alio, where they are mentioned along with those tnlwi 
with wliich they are uMially clussr-d. 


follow Sehwanbeck's correction), — that is, six 
thousand stadia, as Megasthcnes puts it. 

"The ambignonscxpresBipn religaa S'lcuroNira- 
tori, peragrata mint, translated above us ' the other 
jmirneys made, for Selenlws Nikalor,' according to 
Sehwanbeck's opinion, contain a dative ' or advan- 
tage,' and therefore can bear no other meaning. 
Tho reference is to the journeys ol! Megasthcnes, 
Dnimaoh»s, and Patrokles, whom Seleukos had 
uent to explore the more remote regions of Asia. 
Nor is the statement of i'linius in a passage be- 
fore this more distinct. (' India,') he. sayx, 'view 
thrown open not only by the arms of Alexa uder the 
Great, and tin- king* telto were hi* siwrexsorv, of 
■irliom 8ele.itc.ns ami Anliochits even trauell-ed, to the 
lTyreaniait and Caspian seas, To trades being rma- 
■riiumb'r of their fleet, bid all the Greek writers who 
stayed behind tvihh the Indian kings (for instance, 
ALijunth'ues and Dionysins, sent- by Philadelphia* far 
that purpose) have given aeranntts if the military 
force, of i aeh nation.' Hrhwanberk thinks that the 

words circuiiunri is otium Svh'tica el Anfia- 

cli-o H Pa trade, an 1 properly meant to convey 
nothing but additional confirmation, and also 
an explanation how India fas % opcned vp by the 
arms of the kings who succeeded Alexander." 

"The following statements," continues Midler, 

•'contain nil that is related about Megan- 

t h v n £• a : — 

" ' Megastheues the historian, wliolivcd with Seleu- 

kos Nikator',— Clem. Alex. p. I ft* *';////>. (r-Yagm. 42) ; 

' Megastheues. wbylived with Sihyvtios § the satrap 
— - . . — .... ^ 

§ Sibyrti-iri, u^cor-lini* to DioJnrns (XV1IT. iii. 5), !ind 
gained ilie vutrjpy ■>!' AmulK^iu in tke third yew of the 


of Ararhotua, and who says that he often visited 
Samlrakotlos, king of the Indians, '— Arrinn, Kxp. 
Alex. V. vi. 2 (Fragm. 2) ;— 'To Sandrokottos, to 
whom Mpgafithpnus oariio on an embassy,' — Strabo, 
xv. p. 702 (Pragm. 25) ;— ' JMogas them's aud Deim- 
achos were sent on an embassy, th.i former to. 
Sandrokottos at Palimbothra, the other to 
A 1 1 i t r o n h a d 6* a his son ; and fchcy left accounts 
or their sojourn in the country,' — Strabo, ii. p. 70 
(Fragm. 29 natf) ; Mogasthenus says that fie often 
visited Sandrokottos, the greatest king (mahdraja : 
v. Bohlcn, Alte Indian-, I. p. 19) of the Indians, and 
Poros, still greater than lie :' — Arrian, Lid. c. 5 
(Fragm. 24). Add the passage of Plinitis, which 
Solinus (Polyhistar. c. (50) thus renders:—' Mcga-s- 
themes remained/or some time vrith tlt-e Indian kings, 
and wrote a history (if Indian affairs, that he might 
hand doion to posterity a faithful account of all that 
he had witnessed. Dionysius, who was sent by Vht'f- 
adelphus to put Ilia truth to the fpst hy personal in- 
spection, wrote also as much.* 

" From these sources, then, we gather that 
Megasthenes|| was the representative of Selenkos 

114th Olympiad (b.c. 323), and.was fiimly established in his 
satrapy by Antipsitnr (Arrianus, De Success. Alv-f. § )%}, cd. 
Didnt). Ho joiuod humenes in 3KJ (Diod. xix. H. 6), but 
bring called to account by him lie sought safety in flight 
(iliit.'.XIX. xviii. 4). After ( ho defeat of Eunienes, Antigonos 
delivered to liiui the most troublesome of the Argyraspides 
{ibiil. 0. xlviii, 3). He niunt have afterwards joined Se- 

|| Bohlen (Alte Tndien, I. p. 08) says that Mcgastheuc's 
was a Persian. No one gives this aceouut of him but 
Annius Viterbiensis, that forger, whom Hobleu appears to 
have followed. But it in evidently a (ireek name. Strabo 
(v. p. ?43 ; comp. Velleius Patereuhw, i. 4) meutions a 
Mcgastneues of Chalkis, \>-bo is said to have fouuded 
Cum» iu Italy along with llippoklcs of Kume. 


at the court of Sibyrtioa, satrap of Arachosia, and 
that lie was sent from thence as the king's ambas- 
sador to San dr ok ottos at Palimbuthru, and 
that not onco, but frequently — whether to convey 
to him the presents of fcScloukos, or for some other 
cause. AccoVdiug to the statement of Arrianus, 
Megiisthenes alsovisitcd king Poros, whowas(Diod. 
xix. 14) already d*id in 'M7 b.o. (Olymp. CXV. 4.) 
These cveufcs should not be referred to the period 
of Sttlenkos, but they may very easily be placed 
iu tho reign of Alexander, as Uohleu {Alto Iiuh'ru, 
vol. I. p. (58) appears to have believed they should, 
when he says Mogasthenos was one of the com- 
panions of Alexander. But the structure of the 
sentences does not admit of this conclusion. For 
Arrianus says, ' It appears to me that Mugas 
thenus did not see much of India, but yet more 
than the companions of Alexander, for ho says, 
that he visited Sandrokotfcos, the greatest king 
of tho Indians, and Poros ivcn greater than 
he (<cai nd>p<B m tovtov (ufam).' Wo should be 
disposal to say, then, that he made a journey on 
some occasion or other to Poros, if the obscurity 
of the language did not lead us to suspect it a 
corrupt reading. Lassen {Do. Penfap. p. 44) thinks 
tho mention of Poros a careless addition of a clumee 
transcriber, but I prefer Schwanbock's opinion, 
who thinks it should be written ko.1 lil&pov in rot'rai 
Ht(ovt, ' and wlto was coca yrealer than PCros.' If 
this correction is admitted, everything fits well. 

" The time when he discharged his embassy or 
embassies, and how long he stayed in India, can- 
not be determined, but he was probably sent after 
the treaty had been struck and friendship had 


sprung up between the two kings. If, therefor*-, 
we make the reign of 8uiidrok.ot.toM extend to the 
year 2£8. Megasthones would have set ont for 
Palimbothra between 'Ml* and 288. Clinton (/■'. 11. 
vol. III., p. 482) thinks he came to the Indian 
king a little before «.<•. :J0-J."' 

While the dateofthe visit olJIegnsthcnc's to India 
is thus uncertain, there is less jloubL as to what 
were the parts of tins country which he Haw ; and 
on this point Sehwanbeck thus writes (p. 21): — 

" Both from what he himself says, and because 
he has enumerated more accurately than any of 
the companions of Alexander, or any other Greek, 
the rivers of Kabul and the Punjab, it is clear that 
lie had passed through these countries. Then, 
agiiin, we know that he reached Patalipufra by 
travelling along the royal road. V :(. he dons not 
appear to have seen more of India than those 
parts of it, and he acknowledges himself that, he 
knew thelowQhv^ pi '°i'^TAtf W.ntry traversed by 
the Gauw ■ i — -ve'^ '" . ■"•"•;' ',! .'-" 

^non(y supposed that he also spent some 

^im'e in *the Indian camp, and therefore in M»o 

part ol — -« .- , 

known. This opinion, however, is based on a cor 

IB Ul Uliu -»•"« 1 ■ 

rt of the country, but where cannot now 


rapt reading which the editions of Htrabo exh.lnt. 
Z in all the MBS. of Strabo (p. 70S.) w found 
this reading:--**^ *'■* '" r * J-*T 
noon**** <t»t™ o MnavBhv, TtrrapaKovra >W u«- 

'Mrgasthenes .ays that those who were m th*. 
, am ; of Sandrokottos saw,' Ac Vrorn this tram, 
iation that given by Guarini and Gregory alone 

'..^ different. They render thus : -' Alogastheiio;. 
rel'urt, i|iium in Sandroeotti castra veuisset . . * 
vidisse,' ' llegasthenes relates that when he had 
funio into thu camp of iSaifdrokoLlo.4, he saw, 
tVc. From this if. appears that the translator hud 
found written ^fviifuvus. ttufc since that trausla- 
!iou is hardly equal in authority even to a single 
MS., and since (lie word ytvoftemvs can be changed 
more raidily into the word yci'ojieviiv than ytvufit 
v»<s into ysynfifviws, there is no reason at all why 
we .should depart from the reading of all the 
ArSS., which (Jiismibon disturbed hy a baseless 
'•onjeeturr, contending that yeifiyxcrov should be 
.-'ib-'.Htuted, --inasmuch as it, is evident from Strain) 
and -\ ri'iituus ( V. vi. 'J) that Alegas the ties had been 
•^•nt to SuiulrokoUos, -which is an argument 
utterly I'ulile. Nevertheless from the time ol' 
( 'ii'-auboji the wrong reading ytviifiepas which he 
promulgated Ins held its groiuul." 

That Mega-alieues paid more than one visit to 
1 niliii. Hehwaiibcck is not tit all inclined to believe. 
On this point he says (p. 213) — 

"ThaLMegasthcncs frequently visited India recent 
writers, all villi one consent, following llobertsou, 
are wont tomaintain ; nevertheless this opinion is far 
from being certain. For what Arrianus has said in 
his ./'''7» •</. Ali',r. V. vi. L>, )]>>XX<i#i v 8f Xeyei (ftUyaa- 
<3c'ro/s) a<]nKftrO<u Trapii^rii'HjiUKiiTTnv Tov'lv&Sav (3nm\i'u, 
does not soke the question, for ho might have meant 
by the words that ]\Iegasfhcnes during his em- 
bassy had frequent interviews with Ohaudragupta. 
.Nor, if we look to the context, docs any other 
explanation seem admissible; and in fact norther 
writer besides lias mentioned his .making frequent 


visits, although occasion for Milking such men- 
tion was by no means wanting, and in the Indik,t 
itself of Megasthenes not the slightest indication 
of his having made mmierous visits is to bo found. 
But perhaps some may say that to this view is 
opposed the accurate knowledge vhieh he pos- 
sessed on all Indian matters ; but this may equally 
well be accounted for by believing that he made a 
protracted stay at JYitaliputra as by supposing 
that he frequently visited India. Robertson's 
conjecture appears, therefore, uncertain, not to 
say hardly credible." 

Regarding the veracity of Megasthenes, and his 
value as a writer, Bchwanbeek writes (p. £>!J) to this 

" The ancient writers, whenever they judge of 
those who have written on Indian matters, are 
without doubt wont to reckon Megasthenes among 
those writers who are given to ly nig and least worthy 
of credit, and to rank him almost oti a par with 
Ktcsias. Arrianus alone has judged better of him, 
and delivers his opinion of him in these words: — 
' Regarding the Indians I shall set down in a 
special work all that is most credible for naiTation 
in the accounts penned by those who accompanied 
Alexander on his expedition, and by Noarchus, who 
navigated the great sea which washes the shores o[ 
India, and also by Megasthenes and Eratosthenes, 
who are both approved men {Himlfita uv8pt) :' Arr. 
E>'ptd. Ahx. V. v. 

" The foremost amongst those who disparage 
him is Eratosthenes, and in open agreement with 
him Ave. Strabo and Pliny. Others, among whom' 
is Diodorus, by omitting certain particulars re- 


kited bj' Mogasthenes, sufficiently show that they 
discredit that part of his narrative.^ 

T Itegarding flic manner in .which St mho, Arriaiins, 
" Diodorus, aud 1'litiiiiH used the Imlibi of Mcgasl.hencs, 
Schwanbeek remarks:--" Straho, and— not unlike to 
Stiubo —Arrianus, who, however, gave ;i much less carefully 
considered account of India, abridged lli.« dc-.-ripti.nM ,»f 
Megast-henes, yet. in such a way that they wrote at oneo 
in an agreeable style and with strict regard to acenraey. 
Hut. when Straho designed not merely to instruct hut iiIko 
to delight his readers, he omitted whatever would he out of 
place in a# erit. •rtnining nini'ativo or picturesque descrip- 
tion, aud avoided above all thing-* aught that would look 
like a dry lint of name*. Now though this may not be a 
fault, stiil it is not. to be denied that thoup particulars 
which he has omitted wnidd have very greatly helped our 
knowledge of Ancient India.. Nay, SI.ra.bo, iu his eager- 
ness to be interesting, hits gone so far that tin- topography 
<>f Lndia is almost entirely a blank in his pages. 

" IJiodorus, however, iu applying this principle of eoniposi- 
tion has exceeded all bounds. Kor as ho did not aim at • 
writing learnedly fir the instruction of others, but in a 
light, .iiini-iiig «.tyli\ <■!> as to be read with delight by the 
multitude, If M-li'i-ird fiir extract such parts as best suited 
this purpose, lie has thereforo omitted not only the most 
aeenrate narrations of fact, but also tlie fables which his 
render* might consider as incredible, and has been bent 
pleased to describe instead that part, of Indian life which 
tn the Greeks would appear singular and diverting. . . . 
Nevertheless his opitonio is not without its value; for 
although wo do not learn much that is new from its 
contents, still it has the advantage over all the others of 
being tho most coherent, while, at the same timo it, 
enables us to attribute with certainty an occasional jiassago 
to Megast-henes, which without its help we could but 
eon.jecl urr> proceeded from bi« pen. * 

'■ Since Straho, Arrliiiiu •■, and I Hndoru*. have direct ed their 
attention to relate nearly tho same things, it has resulted 
that tho greatest part of the f.uUhi had been completely 
lost, and that of many passages, singularly euongh, thruo 
epitomes arc extant, to which occasionally a, fourth is added 
by Plinius. 

" At a great distance fromthese writers, a nil especially from 
Diodoros, stands Plinius: whence it happens that ho both 
differs most from that writer, and also best supplements his 
i epitome. Where the narrative of Strabo and Arrianus is at 
oneo pleasing and instructive, anil Diodoros cbarfiH us 
with a. lively sketch, Pliny gives instead, in the baldest Ian- 


" Sti-ulio (p. 7<>) says, ' Generally speaking, the- 
men who have hitherto written or. the affairs of 
India were a sot of liars, — Dei machos holds 
the fi rst place in the list, M e g a s t li e n e s come* 
next ; while Onesikr itos and N c it r olios, 
with others of the same class, manage to stammer 
out a low words (of truth). Of this wo became the 
more convinced whilst writing the history of 
Alexander. ^Nb faith Avhatovcr can he placed in 
Dehnachos and Mcgasthcnes. They omned the 
fables concerning men with ears large enough to 
sleep in, men without any mouths, without noses, 
with only one eye, with spider legs, and with fingers 
bent backward. They renewed Homer's fables con - 
coming the battles of tho cranes and pygmies, and 
asserted the latter to be three spans high. They 
told of ants digging for gold, and l'.ans with wedge- 
shaped heads, of Horpents swallowing down oxen 
and stags, horns and all, — meantime, as Eratosthe- 
nes has observed, accusing each other of falsehood. 
Both of these men were sent as ambassitdors to 
Pal i uibotlira ■', — Alegasthcnos to B a n d r o k o 1 1 o s. 
Deimachos to Ami troch ados his son, — and 
snch are the notes of their residence abroad, which. 
T know not why, they thought fit to leave. 

" When he adds, 'Patrokltis certainly docs notre- 
semblo them, nov do any other of tho authorities 

gauge, au ill-disre'Med enumeration of names. With liis 
usual wonderful ilili^ciiro ho has writteu thin part, but 
more frequently still ho writes with too little care and judg- 
ment, —a, fact of which we liavo already seen numerous 
insttinfips. In a careless way, an is usual, lie commends 
authors, so that if you compared his accounts of Taprobane 
and the kingdom of the Prasii yon would think that he had 
lived at. different periods. He frequently commends Mejaras-i 
thenfiU, but more frequently seems to transcribe him without 
acknowledfrment." — pp, 56-58. 


•oiisnlled by Kratosthenes contain such absurdities/ 
vtf may well wonder, seeing that, of all the writer* 
on India, Emtostheiics litis chiefly followed Megas- 
theiios. I'liniiiH (J [inf. Nat. \J.xxi.3) says : 'India 
was opened up to our knowledge . . . oven by other 
( ! reek writers, who, having resided with Indian 
kings, -as Tor instance Megasthenes and Piony- 
sius, — made known the strength of the races which 
peopled the country. It is not, however, worth 
while to *tndy their accounts with care, so con- 
flicting are they, and incredible.' 

" Those same writers, however, seeing they have 
copied into their own pages a great part of his 
TiuJikiu cannot by any means have so entirely dis- 
trusted his veracity as one might easily infer they 
did from these judgments. And what of this, 
that Kralosthenr's himself, who did not rjuoto him 
sparingly, says in Strabo (p. 6'89) that" he sctsjdown 
the breadth of India from the register of the 
St iiLliini, which were received as authentic,'— a pas- 
sage wh icli can have reference tolVrogasthenes alone. 
The fact is they find fault with only two parts of the 
narrative of Megasthenes, — the one in which he 
writes of the fabulous races of India, and the ofchor 
where he gives an account of ITcraklcs and the 
radian Dionysus; although it so happens that on 
other matters also they regarded the account given 
by others as true, rather than that of Megasthenes. 

" The Aryanlndians were from the remotest period 
surrounded on all sides by indigenous tribes in a 
slate of barbarism, from whom they differed both 
in mind and disposition. They were most acutely 
sensible of this difference, and gave it a very noint- 
ed expression. For as barbarians, even by the sane- 


lion of the gods themselves, am excluded from the 
Indian commonwealth, so they seem to have been 
currently regarded by tho Tndiaiis as of a nature 
and disposition lower-tlian their own, and bestial 
rather than h anuin. A di ffereucc existing between 
minds is not easily perceived, but th/> Indians were 
quick to discern how unlike the barbarous tribes 
were to themselves in bodily figure ; and the 
divergence they exaggerated, making bad worse, 
and so framed to themselves a mental 'picture of 
these tribes beyond measure hideous. When 
reports in circulation regarding them had given 
fixit}' to this conception, the poets seized on it as 
a basis for further exaggeration, and embellished 
it with fables. Other races, and these even 
Indian, since they had originated in an intermix- 
ture of tribes, or since they did not sufficiently 
follow Indian manners, and especially the system 
of caste, so roused the common hatred of the 
Indians that they were reckoned in the same cate- 
gory with tIi/3 barbarians, and represented as equal- 
ly hideous of aspect. Accordingly in tho epic 
poems wo see all Brahmanical India surrounded by 
races not at all real, but so imaginary that some- 
times it cannot bo discovered how the fable origi- 

" Forms still more wonderful you will find by 
bestowing a look at the gods of the Indians and 
their retinue, among whom particularly the at- 
tendants of Kuvera and Kartikeya arc described 
in such a manner (conf. Mahdblt. ix. 2558 et seq). 
that hardly anything which it is possible for the 
human imagination to invent seems omitted. 
These, however, the Indiaus now sufficiently dis- 


tiuguish from fclie fabulous races, since they 
noitlier believe that they live within the borders 
of India, nor have any intercourse with the human 
.race. These, therefore, the Greeks could not con- 
found with the races of ludia. 

" These race*, however, might bo more readily 
confounded with other creatures of the Indian ima- 
gination, who held a sort of intermediate place 
between demons and mon, and whose number was 
legion. Iftjr the It a k s h a s a s and other 
P i s a e h a s arc said to have the same characteris- 
tics as the fabulous races, and the only diifcreuce 
between them is that, while a single (evil) attribute 
only is ascribed to each race, many or all of these 
are assigned to the Rakshasas and the Pisachas. 
Altogether so slight is the distinction between 
the two that any strict lines of demarcation can 
hardly bedrawnbetwecuthem. For the Rakshasas, 
though described as very terrible beings, are never- 
theless believed to be human, and both to live on 
the earth and take part in Indian battles, so that 
an ordinary Indian could hardly define how the 
nature ofaRakshasa differs from that of a man. 
There is scarcely any one thing found to charac- 
terize the Rakshnsas which is not attributed 
to some race or other. Therefore, although the 
Greeks might have heard of these by report, — 
which cannot be proved for certain, — they could 
scarcely, by reason of that, have erred in describing 
the manners of the i'accs according to the Indian 

"That reports about these tribes should have 
reached Greece is not to be wondered at. F9r fa- 
bles invented with some glow of poetic fervourhave 


;i remarkable facility in gaining ;i wide currency, 
whicli is all the greater in proportion to the 
ookineses displayed in their invention. Those 
fables also in which tnc Indians have represented 
the lower animals as talking to each other have 
been diffused through almost evoy country in 
the world, in a way we cannot understand. Other 
fables found their way to the (Jrecks before even 
the name of India was known to them. In this 
class some fables even in Homer must be reck- 
oned,- a matter which, before the Vcdas were 
better known, admitted only of probable conjec- 
ture, but could not be established by uiitfuestioii- 
able proofs. We perceive, moreover, that the fur 
thor the epic poems of the dreeks depart from 
their original simplicity the more, for that very 
reason, do those fables creep into them ; whilo 
a vcjy liberal use of them is made by the 
poets of a later age. It would he a great mistake 
to suppose that those fables only in which India 
is mentioned proceeded from India ; for a fable in 
becoming current carries along with it the name 
of the locality in which the scene of it is laid. An 
example will make this clear. The Indians sup 
posed that towards the north, beyond the Hima- 
laya, dwelt the LTtfcarakuri, a people who en- 
joyed a long and happy life, to whom disease and 
care were unknown, and who revelled in every 
delight in a laud all paradise. This fable made 
its way to the West, carrying with it the name of 
the locality to which it related,'and so it came to 
pass that from the time of Hcsiod tin; (i recks sup- 
posed that towards the north lived the Hyper b o- 
r e a n s, whose very name was fashioned after some 


likeness to the Tudiun name. The reason why the 
Indians placed the scat of'this happy people lowardss 
the north isma infest; but there was not theslightest 

.reason which can he discovered why the Greeks 
should have done so. Nay, the locality assigned 
to the Hyperboreans is not only out of harmony, 
but in direct conflict, with that conception of the 
world which the Greeks entertained. 

" The first knowledge of the mythical geography 
of the Indians dates from this period, when the 
( i reeks were the unconscious recipients of Indian 
fables. Fresh knowledge was imparted by Sky- 
1 a x, who first gave a description of India ; and 
all writers from the time of Skylax, with nob a 
single exception, mention those 'fabulous races, 
but in such a way that they arc wont to speak of 
them as ./Ethiopians ; by doing which they have 
incurred obloquy and the suspicion of dishonesty, 
♦'specially K 1 6 s i a s. This writer, however, is not 
at all untruthful when he says, in the conclu- 
sion of his Lulika (&i), that 'he omits many of 
these stories, and others still more marvellous, 
that he may not appear, to such as have not seen 
I ht'sc, to be telling what is incredible;' for he 
coidd have described many other fabulous races, 
as for example men with the heath* of tigers {v;/d- 
yhrttMHrlah), others with the necks of snakea 
{I'ljaltii/riruN), v\,hcrn having horses' heads (furauya 
vttthiu'lx, it&iMMtKluU), others with feet like dogs 
(srd)HiJilii), others with four feet (eJittlnehpmltlx), 
others with three eyes (hiiajlniu), and others with 
six hundred. 

• " Nor were the companion* of Alexander ab^e to 
disregard tht'ot table;:,— in fact, .scarcely any of 



( hem doubted 1 heir truth. For, generally speaking, 
they were communicated to them by tin? Brail - 
muus, who.su learning ;uul wisdom they held in 
the utmost veneration. Why, then, should we be 
surprised that Mogasthcnes also, following exam 
pies so high and numerous, shoukl have handled 
those Tables ? His account oF them is lo be found 
in Strabo/1 1 ; Pliny, Jfial. N>tl. vii. ± 1 1-22; SoliiiiK 
fa." (Seh. p. fit.) 

■Sell wa?i beck then examines the fables related by 
-Megasthcnesyand having shown that they were of 
Indian origin, thus proceeds (p. 71) : — 

" 'The relative veracity of Megnslhcncs, then, ran • 
not be questioned, for lie related truthfully both 
what be actually saw, and what was told him by 
others. If wo therefore seek lo know what re 
banco is to bo placed on any particular narrative, 
this other point must be considered, how far bis 
informants were worthy of credit. Hut here no 
ground for suspicion exists; for on those matters 
which did not come under his own observation 
he had his information from those J3niliiiiuns 
who were the rulers of the state, to whom he 
again and again appeals as his authorities. Ac- 
cordingly ho was able not only to describe how 
the kingdom of the Prasii was governed, but 
also to give sin estimate of the power of other 
nations and the strength of their armies. Hence 
we cannot wonder that Indian ideas are to be 
found in the books of Megasthenes mixed up with 
accounts' of what he personally observed and with 
Greek ideas. 

"therefore to him, as to the companions of Al ■■* 
txander, it cannot be objected that he told too 


much. Tliat lie did not tell too little to give an 
adequate account of Indian affairs to Greek 
readers we know. For lie lias described the 
# country, its .soil, climate, animals, .and plants, its 
government and religion, the manners of its 
peoplo and tljeir arts, — in short, tho whole of 
Indian lifo from the king to the remotest tribe ; 
and he has scanned every object with a mind 
sou nd and unprejudiced, without overlooking even 
trilling and minnte circumstances, Jfwc see any 
part omitted, a little oidy said about tho religion 
and gods of the Indians, and nothing at all about 
their literature, wc should reflect that we are not 
reading his veritable book, bub only an epitome 
and some particular fragments thai, have survived 
the wreck of time." (p. 75.) 

" Of tho slight mistakes into which he fell, some 
are of that kind into which even the most careful 
observer may be betrayed, as for instance his 
incorrectly stating tliat the V ipasa pours its 
waters into the Iravati. Others had their 
origin in his misapprehension of the meaning of 
Indian words ; to which head must be referred his 
assertion that among the Indians laws were not 
written, but everything decided by memory. Be- 
sides he alleges that on those Brahmnns who had 
thrice orrcd in making up the calendar silence for 
therest of their lives was enjoined as a punishment. 
This passage, which has not yet been cleared up, 
T would explain by supposing that ho had heard 
tho Tndian word mdnnin, a name which is applied 
both to a tacitnrn person and to any ascetic. 
•Finally, some errors had their source in this, that 
he looked at Indian matters from a Creek's point 


of view, from which it rcp.ulted that lie did »o|. cur- 
rectly enumerate the castes, and gave si mistaken 
account of the TmViaii gods »iui other matters. 

"Notwithstanding, the work of Megasthcnes- -in 
solar as it is a part of (Jrcok literature and of Greek 
and Roman learning— in, as it mm the culmina- 
tion of the knowledge wliich the ancients ever 
acquired of India: for although the geographical 
science of the Greeks attained afterwards a per- 
fect form, nevertheless the knowledge of India 
derived from the hooks or Mogasthcius has only 
approached perfect accuracy the more closoly those 
who have written after him on India have followed 
his Lulikd. And it is not only on account of his 
own merit that MegasthcnSs is a writer of great 
importance, but also on this other ground, that 
while other writers have borrowed a great part of 
what they relate from him. he exercised a powerful 
inllucnce on the whole sphere i»f Latin and 
Greek scientific knowledge. 

"Besides this authority which' the Iitdika of 
Megasthcnes holds in Greek literature, his remains 
have another value, since they hold not the last 
place among the sources whence we derive our 
knowledgo of Indian antiquity. For as there 
now exists a knowledge of our own of ancient 
1 ndin, still on some points ho increases the know- 
ledge which we have acquired from other sources, 
even though his narrative not seldom requires to 
be supplemented and corrected. Notwithstanding, 
it must be conceded that the new information we 
have learned from him is neither extremely great in 
amount nor weight. What is ofgreater importance 
than all that is new in what he has told us, is - thai 


lie has recalled a picture of thp condition of India 
al, a. definite period, — a servirp of nil the greater 
value, because Tndian literal lire. a.lways self con 
sistenf, is wont, to leave ns til the greatest doubt 
if we sock to know what happened at any particular 
time." (pp. 7<i, 77.) 

It, is yet, an unsettled question whether the T»(lil-a 
was written in the Attic or the Ionic dialect.* 

* The loHmviii"- authorities are quoted by Sehwaubcek 
(|>|>. 2.'!. 21) to show that (lie Imlikaut MeKasthonos was 
divided into four books :— Allien. IV. p. 153— where 
the 2nd book is mentioned ; Clem. Alex. Strum. I. p. 132 
f-'.vlb., where the 3rd book is mentioned ; Joseph, cmlrti 
•1, ><'••», I. 20, nml Auti'i. Jiid. X. xi. !, where the 4th book 
is mentioned,— pf. (!. S.yncoll. torn. I. p. 41!), Bonn. The 
assignment, of the liniments lo their respective books whs 
a mutter of some ditlienlfy, as the <,rder of their connection 
viirie; in ditlerent authors. 




(Diotl. 11.35-42.) 14 3^" 
(35.) ' India, which is in shape quadrilateral, 
has its eastern as woll as its 'western side 
bounded by the great sea, but on the north- 
ern side it is divided by Mount II m d o a 
from that part of Skythia which is Inhabited 
by those Skythiaus who are called the S a k a i, 
while the fonrtli or western side is bounded by 
tho river called the Indus, which is perhaps 
the largest of all rivers in tho world after the 
Nile. * The extent of the whole country from 
east to west is said to be 28,000 stadia, and 
from north to south 32,000. "Being thus of 
such vast extent, it seems well-nigh to em- 
brace the whole of the northern tropic zone 
of the earth, and in fact at the extreme point of 
India the gnomon of the sundial may frequently 
bo observed to cast no shadow, while the constel- 
lation of the Bear is by night invisible, and in 
the remotest parts even Ai'cturns disappears 
from view. Consistently with this, it is also 
slated that shadows there fall to the southward. 
* India has many huge mountains which abound 
in fruit-trees of every kind, and many vast 
plains of great fertility— more or lesH beautiful, 

1 With Kpit. 1, conf. Fragin. ii., iii. (in hid. Ant. vol. V. 
p. 86,«c. a). 

'-* Conf. FragiM. iv. 3 Conf. Fragm. ix. 


bnt all alike intersected by a multitude of rivers. 
5 The greater part of the soil, moreover, is under 
irrigation, and consequently bears two crops in 
the course of the year. It teems at the same 
time with animals of all sorts, — beasts of the Held 
and fowls of the air, — of all different degrees of 
strength and size. 8 It is prolific, besides, in ele- 
phants, which aro of monstrous bulk, as its 
soil supplies food in unsparing profusion, mak- 
ing these animals far to exceed in strength 
those that are bred in L i by a. It results also 
that, since they are caught in great numbers by 
the Indians and trained for Avar, they are of 
great moment in turning the scale of victory. 

(36.) 7 The inhabitants, in like manner, hav- 
ing abundant means of subsistence, exceed in 
consequence the ordinary stature, and are distin- 
guished by their proud bearing. They aro also 
found to be well skilled in the arts, as might be 
expected of men. who inhale a pure air and 
drink the very finest water. 8 And while tho 
soil bears on its surface all kiuds of fruits 
which are known to cultivation, it has also 
under ground numerous veins of all sorts of 
metals, for it contains much gold and silver, 
and copper and iron in no small quantity, and 
even tin and other metals, which are employed 
in making articles of use and ornament, as well 
as the implements and accoutrements of war. 

* In addition to cereals, there grows throughout 
'•' Conf. Fragm. xv 


India mncli millet, which is kftpt well watered 
by the profusion of river-streams, and much 
pulse of different sorJ;s, and rice also, and what 
is called bo&pomm, as well as many other plants 
useful for food, of which most grow spon- 
taneously. 10 The soil yields, moreover, not a 
few other edible products fit for the subsistence 
of animals, about which it would be tedious to 
write. It is accordingly affirmed that famine 
has never visited India, and that there has 
never been a general scarcity in the supply of 
nourishing food. ll For, since there is a double 
rainfall in the course of each year, — one in the 
winter season, when the sowing of wheat lakes 
place as in other countries, and the second 
at the time of the summer solstice, which is the 
proper season for sowing rice and boxpovum, as 
well as scsamum and millet — the inhabitants of 
India almost always gather in two harvests an- 
nually; and even should one of the sowings prove 
more or less abortive they are always sure of the 
other crop. "The fnvts, moreover, of spon- 
taneous growth, and the esculent roots which 
grow in marshy places and arc of varied sweet- 
ness, afford abundant sustenance for man. 1S The 
fact is, almost all the plains in the country 
have a moisture which is alike genial, whether 
it is derived from the rivers, or from the rains 
of the summer season, which are wont to fall 
evciy year at a. stated period with surprising ' 
regularity ; while the great heat which prevail;.. 


vtpens the roots which grow in the marshes, 
and especially those of llio tall reed's. 

'*niit, further, thorn are usages observed by 
4he Indians which contribute to prevent the 
occurrence of famine among them ; for whereas 
among other ifatious it is usual, in the contests 
of war, to ravage the soil, and thus to reduce 
it to au uncultivated waste, among the Indians, 
on the contrary, by whom husbandmen are re- 
garded as a class that is sacred and inviolable, 
the tillers of the soil, oven when battle is raging 
in their neighbourhood, are undisturbed by any 
sense of danger, for tho combatants on cither 
side in waging tho conlliot make carnage of 
each other, but allow those engaged in hus- 
bandry to remain quite unmolested. Besides, 
they neither ravage au enemy's land with fire, 
nor cul down its trees. 

(37.) la India, again, possesses many rivers 
both large and navigable, which, having their 
sources in the mountains which stretch along 
tho northern frontier, travorse the level country, 
and not a few of these, after uniting with each 
other, fall into the river called tho Ganges. 
10 Now this river, whioh at its source is 30 
stadia broad, flows from north to south, and 
empties its waters into the ocean forming the 
eastern boundary of the G a n g a r i d a i, a 
nation which possesses a vast force of the 
•largest-siaed elephants. " Owing to this, th^eir 
country has never been conquered by any 


foreign king : for all other nations dread the 
overwhelming number and strength of these 
animals. w [Thus Alexander the Makedonian, 
after conquering all Asia, did not make wui 
upon the Gangaridai,t as lie did on all others; 
for when he had arrived with all his troops at 
the river Ganges, and had subdued all the other 
Indians, he abandoned as hopeless an invasion 
of the Gangaridni when ho leaincfi that they 
possessed four thousand elephants Avell trained 
and equipped for war.] 10 Another river, about 
the same size as the Ganges, called the I n d n s, 
has its sources, like its rival, in the north, and 
falling into the ocean forms oh iis iray the 
boundary of India ; in its passage through the 
vast stretch of level country it receives not a 
few tributary streams which are navigable, 
the most noiable of them being the II n pa u is, 
the II u d a s p 6 s, and tho A k e s i n e s. 
Besides these rivers there arc a groat many 
others of every description, which permeate the 
country, and supply water for the nurture of 
garden vegetables and crops of all sorts. au JNow 
to account for the rivers being so numerous, and 
the supply of water so superabundant, the 
native philosophers and proficients in natural 
science advance the following reasons : — They 

t Conf. Lassen, I'cnlaput. 16. 

',' Conf. Fragm. xxi. in hid. Ant. vol. V. p. S8, c. vi. 2-? 

l - i0 Conf. Fragm. xi. in lnd. Ant. vol. V. p. 87/ c. iv. 



say that the countries whitdi surround India - 
those of the Skythians and Baktrians, and also 
of the Aryans — are more elevated than Fndia, so 
that tlieir waters, agreeably t to natural law, ftovr 
down logethei* from all Bides to tlie plains 
beneath, wher%thcy gradually saturate the soil 
with moisture, and generate a multitude of 

21 A peculiarity is found to exist in one of the 
rivers of India, — that called the S i 1 1 a s, which 
flows from a fountain bearing the same name. 
ft differs from all other rivers in this respect-, — 
that nothing cast into it will float, bnt every - 
thing, strange to say, sinks down to the bottom. 
(})%.) 24 J.t is saidthat India, being of enormous 
size when taken as a whole, is peopled by races 
both numerous and diverse, of which not even 
one was originally of foreign descent, but all wen? 
evidently indigenous ; a3 and moreover that India 
neither received a colony from abroad, nor sent 
out a colony to any other nation. 9 * The legends 
further inform us that in primitive times the 
inhabitants subsisted on snch fruits as the earth 
yielded spontaneously, and wore clothed with 
the skins of the boasts found in the conntry, 
as was the ease with the Greeks ; and that, in 
like manner us with them, the arts and other 
appliances which improve human life were gra- 
dually invented, Necessity herself teaching 

(Jniif. I'Kttfiu. xh i. 


them to an animal at once docile and furnished 
not only with hands ready to second all his 
efforts, but. also with reason and a. keen intel- 
ligence. ■■ 

2S The men of greatest learning among the 
Indians tell certain legends, of which it may be 
propei 1 to give a brief summary .{ '^ xe 7 relate 
that in tho most primitive times, when the 
people of the country wcro still living in Til- 
lages, 1) i o u ii s o s made his appearance com- 
ing from the regions lying to the west, and 
at the head of a considerable army. He over- 

X I'iwum. I. B. Diod. iir.es. 

doner, -h iinj Dtonveost. 
Now some, as I have already said, supposing 
that there were three individuals of this name, who 
lived in different ages, assign to each appropriate 
achievements. They say, then, that tho most an- 
cient of them was T n d o a, and that as the country, 
with its gonial temperature, produced spontane- 
ously the vine-tree in great abundance, he was 
the first who crushed grapes and discovered the 
use of the properties of wine. In like manner he 
ascertained what culture was requisite for figs and 
other fruit trees, and transmitted this knowledge 
to after-times ; and, in a word, it was he who found 
out how these fruits should be gathered in, 
whence also he was called L e n a i o s. This same 
Dionusos. however, they call also Katapogdn, 
since it is a custom among the Indians to nourish 
tilth- beards with great tare to the very end of 


ran the whole of India, as there was no great 
city capable of resisting his arras. M The heat, 
however, having becomo excessive, and the 
soldiers of Dionusos being afflicted with a pes- 
tilence, the leader, who was remarkable for 
his sagacity,* canned his troops away from the 
plains np to the hills. There the army, re- 
cruited by the cool breezes and the waters 
that flowed fresh from the fountains, recovered 
from sickness. "The place among the moun- 
tains where Dionusos restored his troops to 
health was called M6vos; from which efts 

tlicir life. Dionusos tlicu, at the head of an army, 
marched to every part of the world, and taught, 
mankind the planting of the vino, and how to 
crush grapes in the winepress, whence he was call- 
ed L fi 11 a i o s. Having in like manner imparted 
to all a knowledge of his other inventions, he ob- 
tained after his departure from among men 
immortal honour from those who had benefited by 
his labours. It is further said that the place is 
(jointed out in India even to this day where the 
god hail been, and that cities are called by his 
name iu the vernacular dialects, and that many 
other important evidences tit-ill exist of his having 
been born in India, about which it would be tedi- 
ous to write. 

23 el seqq. Conf. Pragra. lvii. 

t5 - M Conf. Fragni. 1. in Tnd. An*, vol. V. p. 89, c. 
vii. — " HotPllss ns further," &e. to c. viii.— " on the principle 
ofajfirit." * 


omnnfnnop, no doubt., the Greeks have trans- 
mitted to posterity tho legend concerning (he 
god. that Dionnsng was bred in his ful/wr's 
////'<//'.§ M Having aflor this turned bis attention 
l,o the artificial propagation of usotn.1 plants, be 
communicated the secret to thou Indians, and 
taught them tho way to make wine, as well as 
otlior arts conducive to human well-being. r9 Ife 
was, besides, the founder of largo cities, whieb 
bo formed by removing tbc villages to conve- 
nient sites, while be also showed tho people how 
to worship the deity, and introduced laws and 
courts of justice. ""Having thus achieved alto- 
gether many great and noble works', he was re- 
garded as a deity and gained immortal honours. 
Jt is related also of him that he led about with 
bis army a groat host of women, and employed, 
in marshalling his troops for battle, drums and 
cymbals, as tho trumpet had not in his days been 
invented; "and that after reigning over the 
whole of India for two and fifty years he died of 
old ago, while bis sons, succeeding to the go- 
vernment, transmitted the sceptre in unbroken 
succession to their posterity. M At last, after 
many generations had come and gone, tho so- 
vereignty, it is s;tid, was dissolved, and demo- 
italic governments wore sot up in tho cities. 

(0 U .) SR Such, then, are the traditions regard- 
ing Dionnsos and his descendants current 

'xj fiiffjiit. : >- (Vinf. Fragm. U. 


among the Indians who inhabit the hill-country. 
3 *Thoy further assert that II erak les||also 
was born among them. 31 They assign to him, 
•like the Greeks, the club ami the lion's skin. He 
far surpassed other men in personal strength, and 
prowess, and cleared sea and land of evil beasts. 
"'"Marrying many wives he begot many sons, but 
one daughter only. The sons having reached 
man's cstAtc, he divided all India into equal por- 
tions for his children, whom he made kings in 
different parts of his dominions. Ho provided 
similarly for his only daughter, whom ho reared 
up and made a queen. 36 Ho was the founder, 
also, of no small number of cities, the most re- 
nowned and greatest of which he called V a 1 i- 
bothra. Ho built therein many sumptuous 
palaces, and settled within its walls a numerous 
population. The city he fortified with trenches 
oi' notable dimensions, which were filled with 
water introduced from the river. " 7 Jfcraklcs, 
accordingly, after his removal from among men, 
obtained immortal honour; and his descendants, 
haviug reigned for many generations and sig- 
nalized themselves by groat achievements, nei- 
ther made any expedition beyond the confines 
of India, nor sent out any colony abroad. as At 

"•™ Coof. Fragm. 1. in Ttul. Aid. vol. V. pp. 811-90, c. 
viii., from " Bufcthal-. llorculcj," &u. to " of bis daughter.'. 

|| Apparently S i v ;i is meant, though his ma ,i tj wives ami 
aoBA are unknown to fiindu mythology.— En. • 

■" Conf. Fvdgm. xxr. 


lust, however, after many years had gone, most 
of the eities adopted the democratic form ot 
government, though some retained the kingly 
until the invasion of the country by A 1 o x a n«« 
der. ss Of several remarkable customs existing 
among the Indians, there is onef prescribed by 
their ancient philosophers which one may regard 
as truly admirable : for the law ordains that 
no one among them shall, under any cir- 
cumstances, be a slave, but that, enjoying free- 
dom, thoy shall respect the equal right to it 
which all possess: for those, they thought, who 
have learned neither to domineer over nor to 
cringe to others will attain the life best adapted 
tor all vicissitudes of lot : for it is but fair and 
reasonable to institute laws which bind all 
equally, but allow property to bo unevenly dis- 

(40.) The wholopopulation of India is divided 
into seven castes, of which the first is formed 
by the collective body of the Philosopher u,% 
which in point of number is inferior to the 
other classes, but in point of dignity preeminent 
over all. For the philosophers, boing exempted 
from all public duties, are neither the masters 
nor the servants of others. 41 They arc, however, 
engaged by private persons to offer the sacrifices 
due in lifetime, and to celebrate the obsequies of 

•^ 4iXo<ro<£>oi, Strabo, Diod. Zo0t<rrai, An-. 

"*" Conf. Fragm. xxxii. in hid. Ant. vol. V. pp. M-92, 
■'. xi. and xii. 


the dead : for they are believed to bo most dear 
to the gods, and to be the most conversant with 
matters pertaining to Hades. In requital of 
^juch services they receive valuable gifts and 
privileges. " To the people of India at large 
they also render great benefits, when, gathered 
together at the beginning of the year, they fore- 
warn the assembled multitudes about droughts 
and wet "weather, and also about propitious 
winds, and diseases, and other topics capable of 
profiting the hearers. * 3 Thus the people and the 
sovereign, learning beforehand what is to hap- 
pen, always make adequate provision against 
a coming deficiency, and never fail to prepare 
beforehand what will help in a time of need. 
The" philosopher who errs in his predictions 
incurs no other penalty than obloquy, and he 
then observes siloncc for the rest of his life. 

** The second caste consists of the Husband- 
men,* who appear to be far more numerous 
than the others. Being, moreover, exempted 
from lighting and other public services, they de- 
vote the whole of their time to tillage ; nor 
would an enemy coming upon a husbandman 
at work on his land do him any harm, for men 
of this class, being regarded as public .benefac- 
tors, are protected from all injury.' The land, 
thus remaining unravaged, and producing heavy 
crops, supplies the inhabitants with all that ia 

* r«ci>f>yo(, Strab. Arr. Diod. 


requisite to make life very enjoyable. *° The 
husbandmen thorase.lvcs, with their wives and 
children, live in the country, and entirely avoid 
going into town. **Thoy pay a land-tributo to» 
the king, because all India is the property of 
the crown, and no private perscta is permitted 
to own land. Besides the land-tribute, they 
pay into the royal treasury a fourth part of the 
produce of tho soil. « 

47 The third caste consists of the Neatherds 
and Shepherds,! and in general of all herdsmen 
who neither settle in towns nor in villages, but 
livo in tents. By hunting and trapping they 
clear the country of noxious birds and wild 
beasts. As they apply themselves eagerly and 
assiduously to this pursuit, they free India from 
tho pests with which it abounds, — ail sorts of 
wild beasts, and birds which devour the seeds 
sown by the husbandmen. J 

(41.) 4S The fourth caste consists of the A r t i- 
zans.§ Of these some arc armourers, while 
others make the implements which husbandmen 
and others find useful in their different callings. 
This class is not only exempted from paying 

f BovkoXoi Kdi iroiptves xa\ mdakov irdvrts ol vofittt, 
Diod. ttoifUvts Kdi fypevrai, Strab. TJoiptves re koL 
8ovk6\oi, Arr. 

t Sbophords and hunters were not a caste of Hindus, 
but wore probably tribes like the Abhira or Ahirn, Dhan- 
gar^ &e.~ Ed. 

5 Tfxvirai. 


taxes, but even receives maintenance from the 
rojal exchequer. 

*" The fifth caste is the M i 1 i t a r y.|j It is well 
♦organized and equipped for ?var, holds the second 
place in point of numbers, and gives itself up to 
idleness and tunusoincnt in the times of peace. 
The entire force — meu-at-arms, war-horses, 
war-elephants, and all — are maintained at the 
king's exppuse. 

50 The sixth casto consists of the Oversoors. 
It is their province to inquire into and superin- 
tend all that- goes on in India, and make report 
to Ihn king,^[ or, whore thore is not a king, to 
the magistrates. 

51 The ttivmih caste consists of the Coun- 
cil' 1 1 o r s and Assessor s, — of those who de- 
liberate on public affairs. It is the smallest 
class, looking to number, but the most respected, 
on account of the high character and wisdom of 
its members ; ss for from their ranks tho advisers 
of the king are taken, and the treasurers of the 
slate, and the arbiters who settle disputes. The 
generals of the army also, and the chief magis- 
trates, usually belong to this class. 

sa Such, then, arc about the parts into which 
the body politic in India is divided. No one is 
allowed to marry out of his own caste, or to 

|| TLdkefHorai, Strnb. Arr. 

^f "Efftopoi, Diod. Strab. 'fjiriintoiroi, Arr. Is this thn 
class of officers referred to as sheriffs — maltiitiatru— £& the 
Aioka inscriptions? Conf. hid. Ant. vol. V. pp. 267-8.— fin. 


exei*cise any calling or art except his own : for 
instance, a soldier cannot become a husbandman, 
or an artizan a philosopher.* 

(42. ) ** India possesses a vast number of huge, 
elephants, which far surpass those found elsewhere 
both in strength and size. This animal does 
not cover the female in a peculiar way, as some 
affirm, but like horses and other quadrupeds. 
68 JThe period of gestation is at shortest sixteen 
months, and at furthest eighteen. f Like mares, 
they generally bring forth but one young one 
at a time, and this the clam suckles for six years. 
88 Most elephants live to be as old as an ex. 
tremely old man, bat the most aged live two 
hundred years. 

67 Among the Indians officers arc appointed 
even for foreigners, whose duty is to see that 
no foreigner is wronged. Should any of them 
lose his health, they sehd physicians to attend 
him, and take care of bim otherwise, and if he 
dies they bury him, and deliver over such pro- 
perty as he leaves to his relatives. 8S Thejudges 

* "It appears strange that Megnsthenes Should have 
d ivided the people of India into bcvhi castas . . . Herodotns, 
however, had divided the peoplo of Ng.vpt into soven castes, 
namely priests, soldiers, herdsmen, swineherds, tradesmen, 
interpreters, and steersmen ; and Mcgastlionrsniay therefore 
have taken it for granted thai there were seven castes in 
India. It is a curious foot that, from the time of Alexander's 
expedition to a comparatively recent date, geographers 
and others have continually drawn analogies between Egypt 
and India." — Wheeler's Hist, of India, vol. III. p. 192, note 
*•■". Conf . Fragm. xxxvi. 

tC?or some remarks on this point see Blochmann's trans- 
lation of the Atn-i-A kbari, p. 118. 



also decide cases in which foreigners are con- 
cerned, with the greatest care, and come down 
sharply on those who take unfair advantage of 
• them, [What we have now said regarding 
India and its antiquities will suffice for oar pre- 
sent purpose.] 

> Feagm. II. 

Arr. Ejqped. Alex. V. 6. 2-11. 

Of the Boundaries of India, its General 
Cliaracter, and Us Bivers.% 

According to Eratosthenes, and Megasthenes 
who lived with Siburtios the satrap of 
Arachosia, and who, as he himself tells us, 
often visited Sandrakottos§ the king of the 
Indians, India forms the largest of the four parts 
into which Southorn Asia is divided, while 
the smallest part is that region which is includ- 
ed between tho Euphrates and our own sea. 
The two remaining parts, which are separated 
from the others by tho Euphrates and the 
Indus, and lie between these rivers, are scarcely 
'of sufficiont sizo to be compared with India, 
even should they be taken both together. The 
same writers say that India is hounded on its 

% Conf. Epit. ad init. 

§ The name of Chandraffupta is written by the Greeks 
Sandrokottos, Sandrakottas, Sandrakottoa, Androkottoa, 
and (best) Sandrolraptos. Cf . Scblegel, Bill. Ind. I. &5. — 
Schwanbeck, p. 13, n. 6. 


eastern side, right onwards to the south, by the 
great ocean ; that its northern frontier is formed 
by tho Kaukasos range as far as the junction of 
that range with Tauros ; and that the boundary, 
towards tho west and the north-west, as far as 
the great ocean, is formed by the 1 river Indus. 
A considerable portion of India consists of a 
level phiin, and this, as they conjecture, has 
been formed from tho alluvial depqsits of the 
river,' — inferring this from the fact that in other 
countries plains which arc far away from tho 
sea are generally formations of their respective 
rivers, so that in old times a country was even 
called by the name of its river. As an instance, 
there is the so-called plain of the Hermo s — a 
river in Asia (Miuoi*), which, flowing from the 
Mount of Mother Dindymono, falls into the sea 
near tho iEolian city of Smyrna. There is also 
the Lydian plain of the Kaiistros, named 
after that Lydian river ; and another, that of the 
Ka'ikos, in Mysia; and one also in Karia, — 
that of tho M a i a n d r os, which extends even to 
Miletos, which is an Ionian city. [As for Egypt, 
both tho historians Herodotus and Hekataios (or 
at any rate the author of the work on Egypt if 
he was other than Hekataios) alike agree in de- 
claring it to be the gift of the Nile, so that that 
country was perhaps even called after the river ; , 
for in early times Aigyptos was the name of 
the river which now-a-days both the Egyptians 
and other nations call the Nile, as the words 


of Homer clearly prove, when he says that 
Menolaos stationed his ships at the mouth of 
the river Aigyptos. If, then, there is hut a 
' single river in each plain, and these rivers, 
though by no moans large, aro capable of 
forming, as tl'cy flow to the sea, much new land, 
by carrying down silt from the uplands, where 
their sources are, it would be unreasonable to 
reject the ibelicf in the case of India that a great 
part of it is a level plain, and that this plain is 
formed from the silt deposited by the rivers, 
seeing that the Hermos, and the Kaiistros, and 
the Ka'ikos, and the Maiandros, and all the many 
rivers of Asia which fall into the Mediterranean, 
even if united, would not bo fit to bo compared 
in volume of water with an ordinary Indian 
river, and much less with the greatest of them 
all, the Ganges, with which neither tho Egyp- 
tian Nile, nor the Danube which flows 
through Europe, can for a moment bo compared. 
Nay, the whole of these if combined all into 
one are not equal even to tho Indus, which is 
already a largo river where it rises from its 
fountains, and which after receiving as tribu- 
taries fifteen rivers all greater than those of 
Asia, and bearing off from its rival tho honour 
of giving name to the country, falls at last into 
the sea.* 

» Strabo, XV. 1. 32, n. 700.— [All tho rivers mentioned 
(the last of -which is the BDupanis) unite in one, the Indus.] 
They say that fifteen considerable rivers, in all, flow into it. 



Arr. Indica, II. 1. 7. 

Q/ tfto Boundaries of India. f 

(See translation of Arrian.) 

Fkaom. IV. • 
Strabo, XV. i. 11,— p. 689. 
Of the Boundaries and Extent of India.% 

India is bounded on the north bythe extre- 
mities of T a u r o s, and from Arianaio the 

t Gonf. Epit. 1, and for notes on the same see India)!. 
Antiquary, vol. V. p. 330.— Ed. 

t Conf. Epit. 1, 2. Pliny (Hist. Nat. VI. 21. 2) states that 
India extends from north to south 28,150 thousand paces. 
This number, though it is not exactly equal to 22,300 stadia, 
but to 22,800, nevertheless approaches the number given by 
Megasthenes nearer than any other. From the numbers 
which both Arrian (Ind. iii. 8) and Strabo (pp. 68-69, 690) 
give, Diodorus differs romatkably, for ho says the breadth 
extends to 28,000, and the length to 32,000 stadia, it 
would be rash to deny that.Megasthencs may also have 
indicated tho larger numbers of Diodorus, for Arrian 
(/«rf. iii. 7-8) adds to tho number tho words " where 
shortest" and" where narrowest}" and Strabo (p. 689) 
has addod to the expression of the breadth the words " ai 
the shortest," and, referring to Mcgosthoucs and Deima- 
chos, says distinctly " wlw state tluit in some places the 
distance from the southern sea is 20,000 stadia, and in 
otters 30,000 (pp. 68-C9). There can be no doubt, however, 
that Megasthenes regarded tho smaller, and Deimachos 
the larger numbor as correct ; for the larger scorned to 
Arrian unworthy of mention, and Strabo (p. 690) says 
docidedly, " Megasthenes and DSimachos incline to be 
more moderate in their estimate, for according to them 
the distance from the southern sea to Caucasus is over 
20,000 stadia : DSimachos, however, allows that the dis- 
tance in some places exceeds 30,000 stadia" ! by which ha 
quite excludes MegasthcnSs from this opinion. And at 
p. 72, where he mentions the 30,000 stadia of Deimachos, 
'■ie joes not say' a word of Megasthenes. But it must be 
rertain that 16,000 stadia is the only measure Megasthenes 
gave of the breadth of India. For not only Strabo (p. 689) 


Eastern Sea by the mountains which are variously 
called by the natives of these regions Farapa- 
ni i s o s, and II c ra 6 d o s, and II i m a o s,§ and 
pther names, but by the ^Macedonians Kau- 
k a s o s. |! Tho boundary on the west is the 
river I n d u s, irat the southern and eastern sides, 
which are both much greater than the others, 
runout into the Atlantic Occan.^[ Tho shape of 
tho country is thus rhomboidal, since each of 
the greater sides exceeds its opposite side by 
3000 stadia, which is tho length of tho pro- 
montory common to tho south and the east 
coast, which projects equally in these two direc- 
tions. [Tholength of tho western side, measured 
from the Kaukasian mountains to the southern 

and Arrian (hid. iii. 7) have not quoted a larger number 
from Megasthcnes, but Hippo rehos also (Strabo, p. 6!)), — 
whore he shows that Patroklcs is unworlliy of confidence, 
because ho has given, smaller dimensions for India than 
Mejrastheuis— only mentions the mrasnre of 16,000 stadia; 
■where, for what llipparchos wauted, tho greatest nnmber 
■was tho most Suitable for his proof. — I think the numbers 
•were augmented because Alcgasthenes regarded as Indian, 
Kabul and that part of Ariana which Chandragupta had 
taken from Reloukos ; and on tho north the frontier nations 
UttarokoraH, which he metitions elsowkero. What Megas- 
thencs said about the breadth of India remained fixed 
throughout the whole geography of tho Greeks, so that not 
even Ptolemy, who says India extends 10,800 stadia, differs 
much from it. ISut his measure of length has either been 
rejected by all, for fear of opposing tho ancient opinion 
that tho torrid ssono could not bo inhabited, or (like Hip- 
parchos) erroneously carried much too fir to the north.— 
Schwanbeck, pp. 29, 30, n. 21. 

§ Schnueder suggests'fyuios in Arrian. 
|| i.e. Tho Himalayas. 

% Tho world was anciently rogarded as an ishuuhsiu- 
ronndod by the Atlantic Sea. 


sea along tho course of the river Indus to ita 
mouths, is said to be 13,000 stadia, so that the 
eastern side opposite, with the addition of the 
U000 stadia of the •promontory, will he some-?; 
where about lfi,000 stadia. This is the breadth 
of India whero it is bcth smallestrtmd greatest.] 
The length from west to east as far as Pali- 
bo t h r a can be stated with greater certainty 
for the royal road which leads to that city has 
been measured by achocni, and is in length 10,000 
stadia.* The extent of the parts beyond can 
only bo conjectured from tho time taken to 
make voyages from the sea to P a 1 i b o t h r a 
by tho Ganges, and may bo about 6000 stadia. 
Tho entire length, computed at the shortest, 
will be lfi.OOO stadia. This is the estimate of 
Eratosthenes, who says he derived it principally 
from tho anthoritativo register of tho stages 
on tho Royal Road. Herein Megasthenes agrees 

* All tho texts mid burpvprnv iusiead of pvplav. In 
all tho MSS. of Strnbo also wo rend oTfoiw'oij, and in 
Arrian, who extracts the same passage* from Mcgasthcms, 
everywhere axoivms. Though thero w nothing to blamo 
in either lection, yet it is easier to ebaugo a\oivois than 
o\oivims, for Strabo may have boon surprised to find the 
Greek schoenn* in use also in India., The sc/iqcmk.*, how- 
ever, which with Eratostheius U a measure of '10 stadia 
(flin. Hist. Wat. XI 1. 30), coincides precisely with 1 he Indian 
y'rjana of four krOias. 1 do not forget that usually double 
this lenprth is assigned to tho yOjiwa, but also that it ia 
shorter than the Hindus reckon it (,4s. lies. vol. V. p. 105), 
and also by the Chinese pilgrims (Foe-koue-ki, 87-88), and. 
by Megasthencs himself, in Strabo (p. 708, Fragm. xxxiv. 3), 
from which it seems certain that ten stadia are equal to 
eonte Indiau measure which cannot be a smaller one than 
tho krSsa.— Schw. p. 27, n. 23. 


with him. [Patroklfis, however, makes the length 
less by 1000 stadia.] Conf. Avr. lad. iii. 1-5. 

. Fragm. V- 

Strab'o, If. i. 7,— p. CD. 
\)f the Size of India. 

Again, Hipparchos, in tho 2nd volumo of his 
commentary, charges Eratosthenes himself with 
throwing discredit on Palroklos for differing 
from Mogasfchonos about tho lengtli of India on 
its northern side, Mpgasbhonos making it 16,000 
stadia, and Patrokle3 1000 less. 

FliAGM. VI. 
Strabo, XV. i. 12,— pp. GS9-C90. 
Of ihe Sl-30 of India. 
[From this, one can readily seo how the ac- 
counts of the other writers vary from ono an- 
otlur. Thus Kl&sias says that India is not of 
loss sizo than tho rest of Asia ; Omwikritos 
regards it ai tliD third part of the habitable 
world; and Ncaruhos says it takes one four 
months to traverse the plain only.] Mogasthonos 
and Doimacho.? incline to be moro moderate 
in their estimate, for according to them tho 
distance from the Southern Sea to Kaukasos 
is over 20,000 stadia. — [Doirnaohos, however, 
allows that tho distance in some places exceeds 
30,000 stadia. Of those notico has been te&en 
in an earlier part of tho work.] 


Fbagm. VII. 
Strabo, II. i.4,— pp. 08-153. 
Of the Size of India. 
Hipparchos controverts tins view, urging the* 
futility of tho proofs on whieh it rests. Pati'O- 
kles, he says, is unworthy of treSt, opposed ns 
he is hy two competeut authorities, Deiraaehos 
and Megasthenes, who state that in some places 
tho distance from the southern sc« is 20,000 
stadia, and in others 00,000. Such, he says, is 
the account they give, and it agrees with the an- 
cient charts of the country. 

Fragm. VIII. 
Ari\ hulica, III. 7-8. 
Of flio She of India. 
With Megasthenes tho breadth of India is its 
extent from east to west, though this is called 
by others its length. J3.is account is that the 
breadth at shortest is 16,000 stadia, and its 
length — by which he means its extent from 
north to south — is at the narrowest 22,300 

Fbagm. IX. 

Strabo, II. i. 19,— p. 76. 

Of the setting of the Bear, and shadows falling 

in contra^ directions. t 

Again, he [Eratosthenes] wished to show the 

ignorance of Deimachos, and his want of a 

* . i ■■■ ■ ' ■ 

t Conf. Epit. 8. 


practical knowledge of such subjects, evidenced 
as it was by his thinking that India lay between 
the autumnal equinox and the winter tropic, 
And by his contradicting the assertion of Me- 
gasthen&j that in tho southern parts of India 
the conatellatibu of the Bear disappeared from 
view, and shadows fell in opposito directions, J — 
phenomena which ho assures us aro never seen 
in India, thereby exhibiting tho sheerest igno- 
rance, lie does not agree in this opinion, but 
accuses Deimachos of ignorance for asserting 
that the Bears do nowhere in India disappear 
from sight, nor shadows fall in opposite direc- 
tions, as Megasthenos supposed. 

.. Fraom. X. 
Pliny, His*. Nat. VI. 22. 6. 
. Of the Setting of tJie Bear. 
Next [to the P r a s i i] in the interior are the 
Monedes and the S n a r i, to whom belongs 
Mount M a 1 o u e, on which shadows fall towards 
the north in winter, and in summer to the south, 
for six months altornatoly.§ Tho Bears, Baeton 

% Conf. Diod. II. 35, PHn. Hist. Nat. VI. 22. 6. The 
writers of Alexander's timo who affirmed similar things 
were Nearchos and Onfaikritos, and Baoto who exceeded 
all bounds. Conf. Lassen, lust-it. Liny. Frac. Append, p. 2. 
— Sohwanb. p. 29. 

§ " The Manda'.i would seem to be the same people as 
the Monedes of Pliny, who with the Sunn, occupied 
tho inland country to the south of the Palibothri. As this 
is the exact position of the country of tho M uudas and Suars, 
I think it quite certain that they must be tho same race as 
the Monedes and Suari of Pliny. In another passage 
Pliny mentions the Mandoi and Malli as occupying ihe 
country between the Calingai and the Ganges. Amongst 
the Malli there was a mountain named Alallus, which 


says, in that part of the country are only once 
visible in the course of the year, and not for 
more than fifteen days. Megasthenos says that 
this takes place in ruany parts of India. ■ 

Conf. Soliu, 52. 13 :— 
Beyond Palibothra is Moiyit Malens, on 
which shadows fall in winter towards tbe north, 
and in summer towards the south, for six 
months alternately. The North Polo is visible in 
that part of the country once hi tho dourse - of the 
year, and not for longer than fifteen days, as 
Bacton informs us, who allows that this occurs in 
many parts of India. 

Fragm. XI. 

Strabo, XV. i. 20,— p. 693. 

Of the Fertility of India. \\ 

Megasthenos 'indicates the fertility of India 

by tho fact of the soil producing two crops every 

year both of fruits and grain. [Eratosthenes 

writes to the same effect, for he speak? of a 

would scorn to be tho same as tbc famous mouxl Malcus of 
the Monedes and Suari. I think it highly probable that 
both names may ha intended for the nclcbuitcd mount 
Mandar, to the south of Bhrgulpur, which is Tabled to have 
been used by the gods and demons at the churning of tho 
ocean. The Mandei I would identify with the inhabitants 
of the MaMnadi river, which is the Mann da of Ptolemy. 
The Malli or Malei would therefore be the same peoplo as 
Ptolemy's Mandate, who occupied tho right bank of tlio 
Ganges to the south of Palibothra, or they may bo the peo- 
ple of the Rajmah&l hills who are called Maler 

Tho Suari of Pliny are the Sabarrro of Ptolemy, 

and both may be identified with the aboriginal Savaraa 
or Suars, a wild race of woodcutters w)io live in tho jun- 
plej without any fixed habitation." — Cunningham's Ane. 
Qeog. of India, pp. 508-1). 

|| Conf. Bpit. 5, 9. 


winter and a summer sowing, which both hare 
rain : for a year, ho says, is never found to bo 
without rain at both those seasons, whcnco en- 
sues a great abundance, since the soil is always 
productive. Much fruit is produced by trees ; 
and tbe roots if plants, particularly of tall reeds, 
are sweet both by nature and by coction, since tho 
moisture by which they are nourished is heated 
by tho rays of tho sun, whether it has fallen 
from the clouds or been drawn from the rivers. 
Eratosthenes uses here a peculiar expression : 
for what ia called by others the ripening of fruits 
and tho juices of plants is called among tho 
Indians coction, which is as effective in producing 
a good flavour as the coction by fire itself. To 
the heat of tho water the same writer ascribes 
the wonderful flexibility of tho branches of trees, 
from which wheels arc made, as also the fact of 
there being trocs on which wool grows.^]"] 
Conf. Eratostb. ap. Strabo. XV. i. 13,— p. COO :— 

From tho vapours arising from such vast 
rivers, and from tho Etesian winds, as Eratos- 
thenes states, India is watered by the summer 
rains, and the plains aro overflowed. During 
theso rains, accordingly, flax* is sown and 
millet, also scsamnm, rice, and iosmorum,f and 
in the winter time wheat, barley, pulse, and 
other esculent frnifcs unknown to us. 

^f Conf. Herod. II. 86. " VeUeraque utfoliis depectant 
tenuia Seres '( — Virgil, Oeor. ii. 121. — Falconer. 
* XiVois, perhajlfe tho \ivov to cijto 8t»ip€<av of Arrin. 
f jSooyiopov— Strabo XV. i. 18. 


Fragm. XII. 
Strabo, XV. i. 37, — p. 703. 
Of some Wild Beasts of India. 
According to Megasthenfis the largest tigers. 
are found among the Prasii, being nearly 
twice the size of the lion, and so .-strong that a 
tame tiger led by four men having seized a mul© 
by tho hinder leg overpowered it and dragged 
it to him. a Thc monkeys are larger than the 
largest dogs ; they arc white except In the face, 
•which is black, though tho contrary is observed 
elsewhere. Their tails arc more than two cubits 
in length. They are very tamo, and not of a 
malicious disposition : so that they neither at- 
tack man nor steal. 3 Stones are dug up which 
aro of the colour of frankincense, and sweeter 
than figs or honey. *In some parts of tho conn- 
try there arc serpents two cubits long which 
have membranous wings like bats. They fly 
about by night, when they let fall drops of urine 
or sweat, which blister tho skin of persons not 
on their guard, with pntrid sores. There are 
also winged scorpions of an extraordinary size. 
"Ebony grows there. There are also dogs of 
great strength and courago, which will not let 
go their hold till water is poured into their 
nostrils : they bite so eagerly that the eyes 
of some become distorted, and the eyes of others 
fall out. Both a lion and a bull were held fast 
by^a dog. The bull was seized by the muzzle, 
and died before the dog could be taken off*. 


Fbagm. XIII4 

Lilian, Hist. Anim. XVII. 39. Conf . Fragm. XII. 2, 

Of Indian Apes. 

In the country of tho P r ax i i,§ who aro an 
Indian people, Megasthonos says there arc apes 
not inferior in sizo to tho largest dogs. They 


Lilian, Mist. Anim. XVI. 10. 
'* Of Indian Apes. 

Among tUo I* r a a i i in India there is found, they say, a 
species of iipes of human-like intelligence, and which are 
to appearance about the size of Ilurkanian dogs. Nature 
has furnished them with forelocks, which one ignorant, of 
tho reality would take to be artificial. Their chin, like 
that of a satyr, turns upward, and their tail is like tho 
potent one of t)ie lion. Their body is white all over except 
the face and tho tip of tho tail, which arc of a reddish 
colour. They are very intelligent, and naturally tame. 
They are bred in tho woods, whoro also they live, subsist- 
ing on the fruits which they find growing wild on tho 
hills. They resort in groat numbers to the suburbs of 
La t age, an Indian city, where they cat rice which has 
been laid down for them by the king's orders. In fact, 
evory day a ready-prepared meal is set out for their use. 
It is said that whon they have satisfiod their appetite they 
retire in an orderly manner to their haunts in tho woods, 
without injuring a single thing that comes in their way. 

§ Tho Pr&chyas (i.e. Easterns) are called by Strabo, Arrian, 
and Pliny npao-tot, Prasii ; by Plutarch (Alex. 62) Upattruu, 
a name often used by 2Blian also ; by Nikolaus Damns. 
(ap. Stob. FUml. 37, 38) Tlpavxioi ; by Dibdorus (xvii. 93) 
Bpqo-101; byCurtios (IX.2,8)Pftarrasii;by Justin(xii.8,9) 
PrcBsides. Mogasthones attempted to approximate more 
closely to the Sanskrit Pr&cfiya, for here he uses Upafciaitas. 
And it appears that npa|iot should be substituted for 
npamoi in Stephan. Byzant., since it comes between the 
words IIpa£(\of and Tlpaa. — Schwanbeek, p. 82, not. 6. 


have tails five cubits long, hair grown on {.hen 
forehead, and they have luxuriant beards hang- 
ing down their breast. Their face is entirely 
white, and all the rest of the body black. They 
are tamo and attached to man, and not malicious 
by nature like the- apes of other countries. 

Fiuom. XIV. 

JKliaii, Hist. AniM. XVI. 41. Couf. Frogm. XII. \. 
Of Winged Scorpions and Ser$i'nts. 

Megasthones says there are winged scorpions 
in India of enormous sizo. which sting Europcann 
and natives alike. There are also serpents 
which arc likewise wiugod. These do not go 
abroad during the day, but by night, when they 
let full urine, which if it lights upon any one's 
skin at onco raises putrid sores thereon. Such 
is the statement of Megasthones. 

FliAOM. XV. 

Strolw, XV. i. 56,— pp. 710-711. 
Of tho Blasts of India, and the Tteed. 

He (Megasthones) says there arc monkeyB, 
rollers of rocks, which climb precipices whence 
they roll down stones upon their pursuers. 
'Most animals, ho says, which are tamo with us 
are wild in India, and he speaks of horses which 
are one-horned and have heads like those of 
deer ; s and also of reeds somo of which grow 

straight up to the height of thirty oryui(u,\\ while 

— fc i . — . - 

|l The oi'ijtiia was four cubits, or equal to fi feet L inch. 


others grow along the ground to the length of 
fifty. Thoy vary in thickness from three to six 
<uibit» in diameter. 

ITkagm. Xt.B. 

/Elian, lUsl. .itum. XVI. 20. 21. Coiif. Fragm. XV. 2. 1. 

Of maw Heads of India. 

(20.) In certain districts of India (I speak of 
those which two most inland) they say there are in- 
accessible lijiountaina infested by wild beasts, and 
which arc also the haunts of animals like those of 
our own country except that they are wild ; for 
oven sheep, they say, run wild there, as well as 
dogs and goats and oxen, which roam about at 
their own pleasure, being independent and free 
f i'om tho dominion of the herdsman. That their 
number is boyond calculation is stated not oidy 
by writers on India, but also by tho learned men 
of tho country, among whom tho Brachmaus 
deserve to be reckoned, whose testimony is to the 
samo effect. It is also said that thero exists in 
India a quo-horned animal, called by the natives 
tho Eartazun. It is of the sizo of a full-grown 
horse, and has a crest, and yellow hair soft as 
wool. It is furnished with very good legs, and is 
very fleet. Its legs are jointloss and formed like 
those of tho elephant, and it has a tail like a 
swino's. A horn sprouts out from between its 
eyebrows, and this is not straight, but curved 
into tho. most natural wreaths, and is of a black 
colour. It is said to be extremely sharp, this 
horn. Tho animal, as I learn, has a voieo boyond 
all oxample loud-ringing and dissonant. It alfcws 
other animals to approach it, and in good- 


natured towards them, though they say that with 
its congeners it is rather quarrelsome. The males 
are reported to have a natural propensity not only 
to fight among thqmsclves, by butting with 
their horns, but to display a like animosity 
against the female, and to be so obstinate in their 
quarrels that they will not desist 'till a worsted 
rival is killed outright. But, again, not only is 
every member of the body of this animal endued 
with great strength, but such is the potency of 
its horn that nothing can withstand it. It loves 
to feed in secluded pastures, and wanders about 
alone, but at the rutting season it seeks the 
society of tho femalo, and is theu gentle towards 
her, — nay, the two oven feed in company. Tho 
season being over and the female pregnant, the 
Indian Kartazdn again becomes ferocious and seeks 
solitude. The foals, it is said, are taken when 
quite young to the king of the P r a s i i, and are 
set to fight each other at the great public spec- 
tacles. No full-grown specimen is remombcred 
to have ever been caught. 

(21.) The traveller who crosses the mountains 
which skirt that frontier of India which is most 
inland meets, they say, with ravines which are 
clothed with very dense jungle, in a district called 
by the Indians K o r o u da.^f Those ravines are 
said to be tho haunts of a peculiar kind of animal 
shaped like a satyr, covered all over with Bhaggy 
hair, and having a tail like a horse's, depending 
from its rump. If these creatures are left un- 
molested, they keep within tho coppices, living on 
the wild fruits ; but should they hear the hunter's 

IT V. L. KdAowfia. 


halloo and the baying of the hounds they dart up 
the precipices with incredible speed, for they are 
habituated to climbing the mountains. They 
defend themselves by rolling down stones on 
their assailants, which often kill those they hit. 
The most difficult to catch are thoso which roll 
the stones. Some are said to have been brought, 
though with difficulty and after long intervals, to 
the P r a s i i, but these were cither suffering from 
diseases or -were females heavy with young, the 
former being too weak to escape, and the latter 
being impeded by the burden of the womb. — Conf. 
Plin. Hist. Nat. VII. 2. 17. 

Fragm. XVI. 

Pliny, Hist. Nat. VIII. 14. 1. 

Of the Boa-Oonstrictor. 

According to Mogasthenos, serpents in India 
grow to such a size that they swallow stags and 
bulls whole. 

Solinus, 52. 33. 

So huge arc the serpents that they swallow stags 
whole, and other animals of equal size. 

Fkaom. XVII. 

j&lion, Hist. Anim. VIII. 7. 
Of the Electric Eel 

I learn from Megasthones that there is in the 
Indian Sea a small kind of fish which is never 
seen when alive, as it always swims in deep 
water, and only floats on the surfaco after it in 
dead. Should any one touch it he becomes faint 
and swoons, — nay, even dies at last. 


Fragji. XVI II. 
Pliny, Hi.it Nat. VI. 2 1. 1. 
Of Riprobane.* 
Mcgasthones sayn that Taprobaue is 
separated from the mainland by a river ; that 
the inhabitants ai'O called Palai<jgonoi,f and 
that their conntry is more productive of gold 
and large pearls than India. 
Solin. 53. 3. 
Taprobaue is separated front hul'm by a 

* This island has been known by many names : — 
l'. Lank a. — The only name it goes by in Sanskrit, and 
quite, unknown to the Greeks and Unmans. 

2. Simundu or Palcsimundu. — Probably ft Greek 
Form of tlio Sanskrit I'Qli-Simantn. Tl is namo had gone 
out of iiao before the time of Ptolemy tl.o Geographer. 

3. Taprobane. — Supposed to represent tho Sanskrit 
T flmrapar ni ('red-leaved' or 'copper-coloured Hand'), 
a slightly altered form of tho PAH Tart bap a fin?, which 

found in tho inscription of Asokaon tho Girnar rock. 
Vide ante, vol. V. p. 272. 

4. Sal ie o (perhaps properly Saline), Screndivus, 
Sirlcdiba, S-erondib, Z oil an, Ceylon. Thoso nrc 
all considered to be derivatives from Sili a In, tho PAIi 
form of Siiihala, 'tlio abodo of lions.' Tho affix dib 
represents tlio Sanskrit dvipa,, ' an island.' 

f Lassen has tried to accotfnt for tho namo Pnlaiogonoi 
thus {Disserl.de insula Taprob. p. 9) : — "Wo must suppose 
that Mcgasthones was acquainted with tho Indian myth 
that the first inhabitants of tho island were said to have 
been Riiksbasas or giants, tho sons of the progenitors of 
tho world, whom ho might not inaptly call Palaiogonoi." 
Against this it may be remarked that, by this unusual term 
and so uncommon, Mcgasthcncs meant to namo tho nation, 
not doscribo it ; and next that Megasthuncs is not in the 
habit of translating names, but of rendering them accord- 
ing to sound with some degree of paronomasia'; lastly, that, 
shortly after, wo find tho namo of Taprobane and of its capital 
ila\aia-iiiovv8os, quite like to naAmoyovoi. Accordingly as 
Tiasscn explains nuXatmpovi>ftor, tho namo of the capital, hy 
tho Sanskrit P&li-sim&nta (' head of tho sacred doctrine'), 
I wpuld also prefor to explain tho name of the Palaiogonoi 
from (ho Sanskrit' PAli-janfe (?■.«. ' men of the sacrod doc- 
trine').— Suh^anbcck, p. 38, n. 35. 


river flowing between : for one part of it abounds 
with wild beasts and elephants much larger than 
Tndia breeds, and man claims the other part. 

Fuagm. XIX. 
Antigon. Caryst. G47. 
Of Marino Trees. 
Megasthcnes, tlio author of the Twlika, men- 
tions that trees grow in tho Indian Sea. 
Fraum. XX. 
Arr. Ind. 4. 2-13. 
Of the Indus and tltc Gau(jc$.% 
Sec translation of Arrian. 

Futon. XX.B. 
Pliny. Hist. Nat. VI. 21. 9—22. 1. 
The Prinas§ and the Gain as (a tributary 
of tho Ganges) are both navigable rivers. The 
tribes which dwell by tho Ganges are tho C a 1 i u- 
g so, || ncarost the sea, and higher up tho Mandei, 
also the Malli, among whom is Mount Mall us, 
tho boundary of all that region being tho Ganges. 
Somo havo asserted that this river, like tho Nile, 
rises from unknown sourcos, and in a similar way 
waters tho country it flows through, while others 
trace its source to the Skythian mountains. Nine- 
teen rivers arc said to flow into it, of which, bo- 
il; Gonf. Epit. 15- 19, and Notes on Arrian, Ind. Ant. vol. 
V. pp. 331, 332. 
§ V. L. Pumas. , 

|| A great and widely diffused tribe sottlcd mainly bo- 
tweou the Mah&nadi and tho GodAvart. Their capital was 
Partualis (called by Ptolemy Kalligra), on the 
Mahftuadi, higher up than tho site oE Katak. The nainp is 
preserved in K o r i n g a, a great port at the mouth of the 


aides those already mentioned, the Condochates,^[ 
Eramioboas, Cosoagus, and Sonus are navigable. 
According to other accounts, it bursts at once with 
thundering roar from its fountain, and tumbling 
down a steep and rocky channel lodges in a lakis 
as soon as it reaches the level plain, whence it 
issues forth with a gentle current} being nowhere 
less than eight miles broad, while its mean 
breadth is a hundred stadia, and its least depth 
twenty fathoms.* 

Solin. 52. 6-7. 
In India the largest rivers are the Ganges 
and the I n d u s, — the Ganges, as some maintain, 
rising from uncertain sources, and, like the Nile, 

Tf V. LL. Cauucam, Vamam. 

* " Tfao Bh&glrati (which wo shall here regard as the 
true Ganges) first comos to light near Gangotrf, in the terri- 
tory of Garhwfil, in lat. 30° 54', long. 79° 7", issuing from 
under a very low arch, at the base of a great snow-bed, 
estimated to be 300 feet thick, which lies between tho lofty 
mountains termed St. Patrick, St. George, and the Pyramid, 
the two higher having elevations above tho sea, respectively, 
of 22,798 and 22,654 foot, and the other, on the opposite Bide, 
having an elevation of 21,379. From the brow of this curious 
wall of snow, and immediately above tho outlet of tho 
stream, largo and hoary icicles depend. They are formed 
by tho freezing of tho melted snow-water at Lie top of the 
bed ; for in tho middle of the day the Bun is powerful, and 
the water produced by its action falls over this place in 
cascade, but is frozen at night .... At Sukh! the river 
may be said to break though the ' Himalaya Proper,' and 
the elevation of the waterway is hero 7,608 feet. At 
Uevprag it is joined on the left side by the Alaknanda. . . 

From Devprftg tho united stream is now called the 

Ganges Its descent by the Dehra Dun is rather 

rapid to Harldwar .... sometimes called Gangfldwara, or 
' the gate of tho Ganges,' being situate on its western or 
right bank at the southern base of the Sivalik range, here 
intersected by a ravine or gorge by which the river, finally 
leaving the mountainous region, commences its course over 
the* plains of Hindustan. The breadth of the river in the 
rainy season. . is represented to be a full mile." — Tliornton. 


overflowing it,s banks ; while, others tliink that it 
rises in tlic Skythian mountains, hi India there 
is also the rlupauis,f a very noble; vivor, which 
formed the limit of Alexander's march, as the 
aitars set up on its banks tastily. The least 
breadth of the (hinges is eight miles, and the 
greatest twenty? Its depth where least is fully 
one hundred feet. 

Cimf. rrngin. XXV. 1. 
Some say that the least breadth is thirty stadia, 
hut others only three; while Jlegastlioues snys 
that the mean breadth is a hundred stadin, ami 
its least depth twenty orguiai. 

Phaiim. XXI. 

.Ait. Jml. (5. i-?>. 

Of Ik* Wci.r Sihtts.Z 

See translation of Arriun. 

KliAiiM. XXII. 

UuiwMjindc, Auvcil. (ii'iii:. T. i>. HII. 

(if Ihn Ricor Situ*. 
There is in India a river called the S i I a s, 
named after the fountain from which it Hows, 
on which nothing will float that is thrown into 

t Tin 1 siiuii' ii;i the Mnpliiisis i>r Siillij. 

4! St rah. 7'W, Dinil. .IT. 37, itnil iiflenvimN ,-wi arionymou . 
wi'iti-r wlioiii Kiihnkcii (int 1'iilliiiftch. jnii/ui. p. ifr) hnx 
praised, niid whom 1 iieronnt miiy bo read in lioisson. ,\arr,l. 
iti'or. |. U!(. Tlu> naiiin i^ written 2tXXnv in Dimluriitf, 
in Mini 1m ■ StX/rty, but best SiXaf, in tin: epitome of iSlrtihn 
and iu llio .'liifi'i/. OViiv. liiihr, 3(i!>, litirf cnlU-Heil the 
julsisntjin from Klesius. Lassen has ulso illnst rated l.hi:: 
fah\<<' ('/..* itsrlinjl. II. <i») from Indian liU'intuiv :■--" The 
Indians think tlmt the river Silas is in (he north, (hat. il 
pel rilies everything pliiiif,'<'d in it, tvheuce rvurytliiin; ninkc 
and nothing mviiii.i.'' (Cunf. Mnh-UiliAr. II. IKiH.) Sila 
moans 'it .stone.'— Si-lnv. p. #7, n- •'*-. 


it, bnt everything sinks to the bottom, contrary 
to the usual law. 

Fbagm. XXIII. 
Strabo,«XV. i. 38,— p. 703. m 

Of the River Silas. 
(Megastlienes says) that in tfrc mountainous 
country is a river, the Silas, on the waters of 
which nothing will float. Demokritoa, who 
had travelled over a largo part of Asia, disbe- 
lieves this, and so docs Aristotle. 
Arr. Tiwl. 5. 2. 
Of ilia Number of Indian Rivers. 
See translation of Avrian. 

Fkagm. XXV. 
Strab. XV. i. 35. 30,— p. 702. 
Of the city Vatalipiitra.^ 
According to Megasthenos tho mean breadth 
(of the Ganges) is 100 stadia, and its least depth 
20 fathoms. At tho meeting of this river and 
anothcrissituatodPalibothra, a city eighty stadia 
in length and fifteen in breadth. It is of tho shape 
of a parallelogram, and is girded with a wooden 
wall, pierced with loopholes for the dis- 
charge of arrows. It has a ditch in front for 
defence and for receiving the sewage of the city. 
Tho people in whoso country this city is situated 
is the most distinguished in all India, and is called 
the Prasii. Tho king, in addition to his family 

§ Couf. Kpit. 3«. 


name, mnst adopt tho surname of PalibothroB, 
as Saudrakottos, for instance, did, to whom 
Megasthonos was sent on an embassy. [This' 
cijstom also prevails among* the Parthians, for 
all arc called Arsakai, though each has his own 
peculiar name, t as Orodes, Phraatcs, or some 

Then follow these words : — 

All tho country beyond tho Ilupauis is allowed to bo Tory 
fertile, but litt'js is accurately known regarding it. Partly 
from ignorance and tho remoteness of its situation, every- 
thing about it is exaggerated or represented as marvellous : 
for instance, there aro the stories of the gold-digging ants, 
of animals and men of peculiar shapes, and possessing 
wonderful faculties ; as the Seres, who, they say, are so 
long-lived that they attain an ago beyond that of two 
hundred years.|| They mention also an aristocratical form 
of government consisting of five thousand councillors, each 
of whom furnishes tho stato with an elephant. 

Acoording to Megasthonos the largest tigers 
are found in the country of the Prasii, &c. (Of. 
Fragm. XII.) 

Jj'baum. XXVI. 
Arr. Jncl. 10. 

0/ Pataliputra awl the Manners of the Indians. 

It is farther said that the Indians do not 
rear monuments to tho dead, but consider the 

|| This was not tho name of any particular nation, but 
was vaguely]* used to designate tho inhabitants of tho re- 
gion producing silk, of which Str is the name in Chinese 
and in Japanese. The general opinion places this region 
(Seriea) in Eastern Mongolia and the north-east of China, 
but it has also been sought for in Eastern Turkestan, 
in the UimAlaya towards the sources of tho Ganges, iu 
Assam, and own in Pegu. The name is first, met with iu 


virtues which meu have displayed iti life, ami 
I lie songs in which their pmises are celebrated, 
sufficient to preserve their memory after death. 
IJut of their cities* it is said that the number's 
so great that it cannot be stated with precision, 
Imt that such cities as are situated on the hanks 
of rivers or on the sea-coast are built of wood 
instead of brick, being meant to last only for a 
lime,— so destructive are the heavy rains ■which 
pour down, and the rivers also when they over- 
flow their banks and inundate the plains, — while 
those cities which stand on commanding situa- 
tions and lofty eminences are built of brick and 
mud ; that the greatest city in India is thai 
which is called Palimbothra, in the domi- 
nions of the P r a s i a n s, where the streams of 
the E r a n n o b o a s and the G a n g es unite, — 
the Ganges being the' greatest of all rivers, and 
Iho .lOrannoboas being perhaps the third largest 
of Indian rivers, though greater than the great- 
est rivers elsewhere ; but it is smaller than the 
Ganges where it falls into it. M eg a s t h e u e s 
informs us that this city stretched in the in- 
habited quarters to an extreme length on each 
side of eighty stadia, and that its breadth was 
fifteen stadia, and that a ditch eucompassed it 
all round, which was six hundred feet in breadth 
and thirty cubits in depth, and that the wall 
was crowned wilh 570 towers and had foiir-and- 
sixly gates. The same writer tells us further 
Ihis remarkable fact about India, that all the 


Indians arc Prop, and n<>< one of thorn is a. slave. 
Tho liakcd&Mnon ian s anil the Indians are 
how so far in agreement. Tlic 1 /aked;omoniaiis, 
,howevcr, hold the 11 o 1 o t»s as slaves, and these 
Jlelots do servile labour ; but the Indians do 
not oven nscfilions as slaves, and much less a 
countryman of their own. 

Fiiagm. XXVII. 

' Hlrsil). XV. i. 53-i'iO ,— pp. 709-IH. 

Of the Maitunv of the htilioiit. 

The Indians all live frugally, especially wlien 
in camp. They dislike a groat undisciplined 
multitude, and consequently ilicy observe good 
order. Tlieft is of very wo occurrence. Ale- 
gasthenos says that those who were in tho 
camp of Sandrakottos, wherein lay 400,000 
men, found that tho thefts reported on any one 
day did not exceed tho value of two hundred 
drachma', and this among a people who have 
no written laws, but are ignorant of writing, 
and must therefore in all the business of life 
trust to memory. They live, nevertheless, hap- 
pily enough, being simple in Iheir manners 
and frugal. They never drink wine except at 
sacrifices. 1 ^ Their beverage is a liquor com- 
posed from rice instead of barley, and their 
food is principally a ricc-poltage.* Tho sim- 
plicity of their Jaws and their contracts is 

^f Thisi wiuo wan probably Soma juice. 
* Curry ami riot", no doubt . 


proved by the fact that they seldom go to law. 
They have no suits about pledges or deposits, 
nor do they require cither seals or witnesses, 
but mako their deposits and confide iu eacb, 
other. Then' houses and property they gene- 
rally leavo unguarded. These thjngs indicate 
that they possess good, sober sense ; but other 
things they do which one cannot appi'ove : for 
instance, that they eat always alone, and that 
they have no fixed hours when meals are to bo 
taken by all in common, but each one cats when 
ho fools inclined. The contrary custom would 
be better for tho ends of social and civil 

Their favourite mode of exercising the body 
is by friction, applied in various ways, but espe- 
cially by passing smooth ebony rollers over the 
skin. Their tombs are. plain, and the monnds 
raised over tho dead lowly. In contrast to the 
general simplicity of thoir stylq, they love finery 
and ornament. Their robes arc worked in gold, 
and ornamented with precious stones, and they 
wear also flowered garments rnado of the finest 
muslin. Attendants walking behind hold up 
umbrellas over them: for they have a high regard 
for beauty, and avail themselves of every de- 
vice to improvo their looks. Truth and virtue 
they hold alike in esteem. Hence they accord 
no special privileges to the old unless they 
possess superior wisdom. They marry many 
wives, whom they buy from their parents, giving 


in exchange a yoke of oxen. Some they marry 
hoping to find in them willing helpmates ; and 
others for pleasure and to fill their houses with 
.^children. The wives prostitute themselves un- 
less they aro compelled to ho chaste. No one 
wears a crowai at a sacrifice or libation, and 
they do not stab tho victim, but strangle it, so 
that nothing mutilated, but only what is entire, 
may be presented to the deity. 

A person convicted of bearing false witness 
suffers mutilation of his extremities. He who 
maims any one not only suffers in return the 
loss of tho same limb, but his hand also is cut 
off. If lie causes an artizau to loso his hand or 
his eye, ho is put to death. The same writer 
says that none of tho Indians employ slaves ; 
[but Oncsikritos says that this was peculiar to 
that part of tho country over which Musikanos 
ruled. ]f 

The cave of tho king's person is entrusted to 
women, who also aro bought from their pa- 
rents.:!: Tho guards and tho rest of the soldiery 
attend outside tho gates. A woman avIio kills 
the king wbon drunk becomes tho wife of his 
successor. Tho sons succeed the father. Tho 
king may not sleep during tho daytime, and 
by night ho is obligod to change his couch from 

t Ilia kingdom lay iu SiiuUui, along tho banks of the 
Indus, and lila capital waB probably near Bakkar. 

X This was not unknown in nativo courts of later times. 
Conf. Idrisi's account of tho Balhara king. 


time to time, wil.li :i view io defenl plots against, 
his lil'e.§ 

Tlic king leaves his palace not only in time 
of war, but also for thtjpurpose of judging causes* 
I To then remains in eonrt for tho whole tlay, 
without allowing tho business to lr; interrupted, 
oven though tho hour arrives when ho must 
needs attend to his person, — that is, when ho is 
to be rubbed with cylinders of wood. Ho con- 
tinues hearing oases while the friction, which is 
performed by four attendants, is still proceeding. 
Another purpose for which he leaves his palace 
is to offer sacrifice; a third is to. go to the 
chase, for which he departs in Bacchanalian 
fashion. Crowds of women surround him, and 
outside of thiscircle spearmen are ranged. Tho 
road is marked oil* with ropes, and it is death, 
for man and woman alike, to pass within the 
ropes. Men with drums and gongs lead the 
procession. The king hunts in the enclosures 
and shoots arrows from a platform. At his 
side stand two or three armed women. If he 
hunts in tho open grounds lie shoots from the 
back of an elephant. Of the women, some are 
in chariots, some on horses, and some even on 
elephants, and they are equipped with weapons 

§ " Tlic jirest'iit kintf of Avrt, who evidently 1ic1om«s Io 
the Judo-l'liincsr typo, uliliou^U li« dnlins a knlisitriyn. 
I'viftin, leiulri a life of Hccluftion very similar to that, of 
S:i i ill roK ottos. Hi; chungi-it his Ijcdnioiu ovi'ry niglit, as u 
>:ifoaiu:ml ajpiinst Midden trciicln'i-y.*' (WIiivUt'h Uhl."f 
hi'liii, vol. II!. p. IS2, ncie.) 


of every kind, as if they were going on a cam- 
paign. || 

[These customs are very strange when cora- 
Mavcd with our own, but llio following are still 
more so ; ] for Megasthenes states that the 
tribes inhabiting the Kaukasos have intercourse 
with women in public, and eat the bodies of 
tlioir relatives,^ and that there are monkeys 
which roll down stones, &c (Fragm. XV.fol- 
Irnvft, ami then Frarjm. XXIX.) 

Fraom. XXVI LB. 
./Elian. V. L. iv. 1. 
The Indians neither put out money at usury, 
nor know how to borrow. It is contrary to estab- 
lished usage for an Indian cither to do or Hiifler a 
wrong, and therefore they neither make contracts 
nor require securities. Conf. Suid. V. IvSm. 

Fjjacm. XXVII. 0. 
Nicol. Diiiuasu. 41; Stob. 8vr.ii. 12. 

Among the Indians one who is unable to recover 
si loan or a deposit has no remedy at law. All 
Llio creditor can do is to blame himself for trusting 

(I. rOt fill': 

Frag*. XXVII.1). 

Nicol. Damage. 41; Stob. Serin. -12. 

Ho who causes an artisan to lose his eye or his 

hand is put to death. If one is guilty of a very 

heinous offence the king orders his hair to be 

|| In 1Uu drama of SinlnniinU, JJ.i\ja Dusliyn nta in ro- 
proumtod us attended in the cl'xso by Vavana women, with 
Lowh in.tlu-iv bands, and wearing garlands of wild flowera. 

f HViwlotus (bit. iii. 88, 99, 101) lias noted tbe exist- 
ence of botb iirauiieea among certain lndiau tribes. 


iimpped, this being a punishment |.o tlio last de 
(jiim 1 inl'tiiiioiis. 


.Vt-bii'i. iv. p. 153. 

Of lh u Huppivs of Hi i; hut ia im. 

MegflKthenoM, in tho second bonk of his fntlika, says Mutt 

when the Indians are at supper a tsi.blo <a plawd bol'oiv 

each person, this lieing like a tripod. There iv. pheed 

upon it :i golden bowl, into which thuy first, put riue, boiled 

ns one would boil l»arley, fuul then they add ninny *dn intip* 1 

prepared according to Indian i-Lceipts. ■ 


Slrab. XV.i.57,— p.71l. 

Of fahnhniK tribiat. 

Kut. deviating into fablos he says there art' 
men five spans and oven thi'co spans in height, 
some of whom want the nose, having only two 
orifices above the mouth through which they 
breathe. * Against the nicnof three spans, war, 
as Homer has snng, is waged by the cranes, and 
also by partridges, which are as large as geese, f 

* Of. £tail>. H. i. !',- p. 70 :— Doimiuhoss and Mogsu- 
tlirmV are especially unworthy of credit. J I ; s they who 
tell those stories about the tr.en who sleep in their ears, 
tlie men without mouths, the men without nostrils, tlio 
iiipn with ouo eye, the Ttion with long logs, .ind tho meti 
with their toes turned backward. They renewed Homer' n 
fnblo about tlio battle between the Cranes and the 
Pjgniios, asserting that the latter wero three spans iu 
height. Tliey told of tho ants that dig for gold, of 
Pans with i\ edgo-shaped heads, and of wrponts swallow- 
ing down oxen and stags, horns and all, — tho one. author 
mean while accusing tho other of falsehood, as Eratosthenes* 
has remarked. 

t Ktesias in his Tiuh'ka mentions Pygmies a* belonging 
to I mlifu Tho Indians themselves considered them as be- 
longing to the race of the Kirfibu, a barbarous people who 
inhabited woods -and mountains and lived by bunting, and 
who were ao diminutive that: their name became a synonym 


These people eolloof. and destroy the nggs of the 
cmiii'S, Tor it in in tlieir country the cranes lav 
tliiiii" eggs, and tliiis the eggs and tlie young 
'jrancH arc not to be foxnd anywhere ulse. 
frequently a crime escapes having tlic brazen 
point of a weapon in. its body, from wounds re- 
ceived in that conutvy. • , Equally absurd is 
the account given of the Knoto koi tai,J 

for dwarf. 'iliey were thought to fight willi vultures and 
"aj?Ies. As they were, oF lilougomn nrigiu, tlic ImliiuiH 
represented them with tlic distinctive features of that race, 
hut with their repulsiveuess exaggerated. Hence. Mogas- 
thenos spoko i if the Aimiktrred, inuu without noses, wlio 
hu.il merely breathing-holes above, tlic mouth. The Kiriltai 
.ire no doubt identical with the Seyrites (V. L. Syrietef) of 
J'liniuM mid tin- Kirvhadai of (he /', , ,',./,.., jl/,i f -i". ?■.',■.,//..■.. i. 
X 'I'll' 1 l'!iii'''.il»"it:ii .itv ejlli-'l ill Sanskrit h. i,i..r,.,,;,-.i. 
/•uiii'ui, imd lire l'ret|uently referred to in tlio itru&t epic 
poems— e.;/. Mali'dth. 11. U70, ]**75. Tim oiiiniou whs 
universally prevalent among tlio Indians that barbarous 
tribes had largo ears: thus not, only nrollw h'aniai'i'iha. 
*vm'/s mentioned, but also KiwwikAs, i,nui.l>o.kni , i}"i.n, Mitlili- 
/•iij'ii/u {/.<■. l'inv; r.r l.ir^i- rived), l'.-l,l.:il;i.;..'i.i ( '.'.. . r.nnnl. 
«-:iteiVj,*f' ■liil.i 1 , 1 ■-,■--.<'. •.c.ii.uiiigi he i-.ir-f L -l..— 1.1 the Kp-i, 
1'iiiiiktir,-'* ('.i. Ii-iiin:* hand- fur iMr.>). Srlmaiili. «■'> 
"Jiwi'i'-J, ' >ii>* IVIkvlir(//i'./. /.-/. ml. III. [i. I IX 
"for any one conversant, with Jndia to jxiijit out (Jut 
origin, of many of the. go-culled fables. The. ants are not 
as big as foxes, but they are very extraordinary excavators. 
The stories of men pulling up trees, and using tlimi as 
ehilis, are common enough in the Al«h"ililit\rrit<i; especially 
in tlio legends of the exploits of Hhiuia. "Men do not 
have ears hanj?in<f dowu to their feet, but bo1h men and 
women will occasionally elongate their ears after a very 
extraordinary fashion hy thrusting articles through Hie 
lobe. . . . . ]f there was one. story more than another 
which excited the wrath of Strabo, it was that nf a 
pople whose ears hung down to their feet. Yet the story 
is still current in Hindustan. Balm Johari Dim says: — 
' An old woman once told me that her husband, a sepoy 
in the Thiti-h army, Lad aeon a iienple who .->h-|il on ■■□>.- 1 ji\ 
jud l.ovi red Ihi-ln.M-lvi'n nitli the ■•tiler. 1 (ll'.mt .-li-- ftlhi- 
HersanilCimlitmsiifllir lluulvs, HanAras, IW!*>.V The story 
puay be referred to the Himalayas, Fitch, who travelled 


of the wild men, and oi" other monsters. '* The 
wild men could not bo brought to Sandrakottos, 
tor thoy refused to tako food and died. Theiv 
heels arc in front, .and the instep and toes are 
turned backwards. § B Some wore brought to llic 
court who had no mouths and were tamo. They 
dwell near the sources of the Ganges, and subsist 
on the savour of roasted flesh and the perfumes 
of fruits and flowers, having instead of mouths 
orifices through wjp'ch they breathe* They are 
distressed with thiugs of evil smell, anil ° hence 
it is with difficulty thoy keep their hold on life, 
especially in a camp. Referring to the other 
monstrosities, the philosophers told him of tho 
Oknp o dos, apeoplewhomrunningcoulillcave 
the horse behind ;|| ' of the Enotokoitai, 
who had cars reaching down to their feut, so that 
they could sleep in them,- and \vei*o so strong that 
they could pull up trees and break a bowstring. 
8 Of others tho M o n o m m a t o i, who have the 

in India about 1585, says that a people in 15but"m had chip 
a s<pan long." 

^ These wild men are mentioned both by drains and 
Rieto. Thoy wore called Antipodes <m ai-eonnt. of iliu 
peculiar Rtriieturo of (heir loot, and wove reckoned among 
>Rtliiopi.iii tiicox, Ih-Ttiifli thoy are often refenvd to in the 
Iudiuu i-pi-v under tho name Fitkh&itoYijnl'ijfm, of wliioh 
the (miiTdnfttiKTvXoi of Megastheucs is u.u exact transla- 
tion. Vide Schwanl). f>8. 

|| ' OkuptxW iw a transliteration iuto f ireek, with a slight 

change, of the Sanskrit Al"j« -di'n, ('having one foot'), lliu 
name of atriho of the Kiralai noted t'orsnit'tnoss of foot, tho 
iniality indicated by tho (Ireok term. The Monopodos aro 
mentioned by KhVuu, wlu> confouudod thorn with the 
Kkiapodea, Hie men who covered themselves with tho shadow 
of their foot. 


ears of a dog, their one eye Het iu the middle of 
their forehead, the hair standing erect, and their 
breasts shaggy ; % of the Aniuk tores also, a 
people without nostrils, who devour everything, 
eat raw meat, and arc short-lived, and die before 
old ago supervenes.* The npper part of the 
mouth protrudes far over the lower lip. ° With 
regard to the Hyperboreans, who live a 
thousand years, they give the samo account as 
Simouides* Pindaros, and other mythological 
writcrs.f 10 The story told by Timagoues, that 

IT Whsil Mrgiiwllii'tifa hero mention* a* the charaeteris- 
tii-n "f a -in'^li- (lib 1 are by tLo Itii.lr.1111 sil I ril -i it ■■■ I losi'veral. 
Tlii! niii'-cyi-il hiimi tlii-j are ivi-iil 1 ■ • i-.i 1 1 ■"/ ." '- .- /. -l.-t or <7rtt- 
vUo-clutiiA..* — the men with linirxtaudiug erect, nMlivukcAi; 
Indian CycV'pes even aro mentioned uuder the name of 
Liil&fAkslta*; i.e. having ono eyo in the forehead : vidr 
Schwunbl 70- 

* "That Iho Asi-O'ini arc mentioned in the Tndian hooks' 
wo cannot show so well as in tin? ease of tlic Amulvtvri'i*, 
whom Metfasthetiea describes as irafuj)iiytivs, otfiorfniynvs, 
'oXiyoXfittvuws. Nevertheless the vi'ry words of t lie de- 
scription aro a proof that ho followed the narrat ives of the 
Indians, for tho words UafKJmyns, &c. hy which lie has 
described the Amukti-res, are very rarely used in ( Ireek , 
and are translations of Indian words." Schwann. (Ji). 

t Pindar, who locates the 11 yperburoniis smncwherc about 
tho months of the Ister, thus sings of them : — 

" But who with venturous course* through wave or waste 
To Hyperborean haunt* and wilds uuliueed. 

K'er found his wondrous wa.y F 
There L'erseus prcs>ed amain, 

And 'midst, 1 lie tVu.4 entered their strange abode, 
Where hecatombs of asses plain 

To soothe the radiant Rod 
Astounded he beheld. Their rude solemnities, 

Their barbarous shouts, Apollo's heart delight : 
Laughing tho rampant brut* 1 ho sees 

Insult tho solemn rite. 
Still their sights, their customs strange, 

Scare not the ' Muse,' while all around 


.sliowrrs iVt.ll of drops of copper, which iiro swept 
t-nguthor, is u, Cubic. " Mcgasbhonos «bilus — 
what is more open to belief, since tlio saint) \a 

'i'lio dancing virgins range, 

And inciting lyres ami piercing pipes resound. 
With braids of golden hays entwined 
Thoir soft resplendent locks they biufl, 

And feast in bliss the genial hour : 
Nor ft ml disease, nor wasting age, 
Visit tin? sacred race; nor wars tkey wage, 

Nor toil for wealth or power." 

(lOtb VyUiiun ode, 11. 4(5 to oi;, A. Monro's tnelriral ver 

MegasLhcucs had the penetration to pereeive that llio 
(jrook fable, of the Hyperboreans had an Indian source in 
(he fii,l.iles regarding the Utlnivtvrnn. This word means 
literally the 'Kuril of the North.' "The, historic origin," says 
J*. V. deSainl-Marlin, "of the Sanskrit apiwllsii'ifjii UUn- 
rtt-kiii'ii is unknown, hat its acceptation never varies. In 
all the documents of tlpavedie literature, in the great poems, 
in the J'uranas, — wherever, in short, the word is found, —it 
pertains to tin) domain of poetics and mythological geogra- 
phy. Uttaiiikura is situated in the uttei'nio i. regions of 
tho north at tho foot of (he mountains which surround 
Mount Mem, far beyond the habitable world. It is Hie 
abode of demigods and holy llishis whoso lives extend to 
several thousands of years. All ac-cess to it is f'orliiddeii 
to morlals. Like tho J [ypcrboroau region of Western niy- 
tholoirists, this too enjoys the happy privilege, of an eternal 
sprintr. e(|u:illy exempt from excess of cold, and excess of 
li--.it, and (hero the sorrows of the soul and the paius ot 

the. body urn tililcn unknown it is clear enough 

thai this land of the liUsA is not of our world. 

" I n their interexnirse with the Indians after the expedi- 
tion of Alexander, tho ({reeks became aci|uainted with 
these iit-tious of Urahmanic poetry, as well its with a good 
many other stories which made them look upon India as a 
liiml of prodigies. Megasthcues, like Kt''sias before liini, 
had collected a great number of such dtories, and oil her 
from his memoirs ov from contempoiary narratives, such 
as that of Deiinaclios, the fable of the Utturakurus had 
spread to the West, since, from what Pliny tells us (vi. 
17, p. 310) one Aniojnetns had composed a treatise re- 
garding thorn analogous lo that «f ITccntnius regarding the 
Hyperboreans. It is certainly From this treatise of Amo- 
iijctus that I'liny borrows thu two lines which he devotes 
to his Attiiconu, ' that a girdle of mountains wanned with 


the rasa iu IhevinJ — thatthn rivers cany down 
gold (Inst, and thai, a part of tin's is paid by 
way of tributo to the king. 

Fjuo.m. XXX. 
Plin. Hist. Nat. VII. ii. 11-22. 

Ofjabufows race*. 
A ceording to Megasthcnes, on a mountain cal led 
N" n 1 o § there livo men whoso feet are turned 

t lie snn sheltered them fi'iim the blasts of noxious winds, and 
thattheyenjoyt'd, like the Hyperboreans, an eternal spring.' 
' (Jens hiiiiiimnii Altauornm, apricis ab muni uoxio afllatu 
seclusa nollibns, eadein, qua Hypurborei dcgiinl, tem- 
pera-.' iyWn.liiccit. Ammianns Maroelliuns, xxiii. (i, 04.) 
Wagner transfers i.his description to tlio Seres in general, 
(ill' whom tho Altticurtr of Pliny form pari.), and some 
modern critics (Manucrt, vol. I\ r . p. 250, lt<7!i ; Foehiijer 
llaiiilb. ilvr alti-ii (/eni/i 1 . vol.11, p. 172, 18tt) have be- 
lieved (hey could see in ii a reference to the great wall 
of China.) We see from a host of examples hi-sides this, that 
the poetic fab km and popular legends of India had (ukcu, 
in passing into tho (!rcek narratives, an appearance of 
reality, and a Sort of historical consistency." (li'tinlf sin- 
In (Ji'ii.jii'pluv (iivri/i/g et Latinc do I'lmh 1 , pp. 413-414.) 
Tlio same author (p. 412) says, "Among the peoples of 
Serieji, I'toleiuy reckons the (MororvirWif, a name which 
in I'liny is written Attacora), and which Auimianus Alnr- 
eelliinis, who conies Ptolemy, distorts into Oparocarra. 
Them is no difficulty in recognizing under this winni the 
(Jttaraknru of Sanskrit books." 

Schwanbeek (p. 70) quotes Lassen, who writes somewhat 
to tlio same, ell'ect : — " Uttaraknru ia a part of Scriea, ami 
as the tirst accounts of India came, to the West, from the 
Seres, perhaps a. part of the description of the peaceful 
happy life of the Seres is to ho explained from the ludiau 
stories of the. Uttunikurn. The story of the long life of Ihe 
Seres may be similarly explained, especially when Mcgaa- 
1 hem's reckons the life attained by the Hyperboreans at 
1000 years. The MaMhfa'trata (VI. 2(H) says that tho 
Uttarakurns live 1000 or 10,000 years. Wo conclude from 
this that. Megasthenes also wrote of the Uttnrakurus, and 
that he not improperly rendered their name by that of 
tlio Hyperboreans." — %eitnchr. II. (57. 

J Not. Spain, but the country between the Black Sea 
and the Caspian, now called Georgia. 

§ V. L. Nullo. 


backward, and wlio liavo cij^ht toes on each foot ; 
*' while on many of the mountains there lives a 
race of men having heads like those of dogs, who 
are elothed with the skins of wild beasts, whore 
speech is barking, and who, being armed with 
elaws, live by hunting and fowling. || [ 9& Ktesios 
assorts on his own authority that the number of 
those men was upwards of 120,000, and that 
there is a race in. India whoso females boar oif- 
spring bat once in the course of their life, and 
that their children become at once groy-haired.J 

3 Megasthpnes speaks of a race of meu among 
the Nomadic Indians who instead of nostrils 
have merely orifices, whoso logs arc contorted like 
snakes, and who are called S c y r i t so. Ho 
speaks also of a race living on the very eon fines 
of India on the east, near tho source of the Gan- 
ges, the A s to mi, who have no mouth; who 
cover their body, which is all over hairy, with the 
soft down found upon tho leaves of trees ; and 
who live merely by breathing, and the perfume 
inhaled by the nostrils. They eat nothing, and 
Ihcy drink nothing. Thoy require merely a 
variety of odours of roots and of flowers and of 
wild apples. Tho apples thoy carry with them 
when they go on a distant journey, that thoy 
may always have something to smell. Too 
strong an odour would readily kill them. 

•| CiilliMl by Kt>Vi:w KvvoK€<f>a\ot, and ill Sanskrit 3wu- 
nmck&s or fii'iiiiuo /<4s. 


*' Beyond the A. s to in i, in {he remotest pari 
of the mountains, the T i- i s p i t h a ra i and the 
•Pygmies are said to have their abode. They 
nmeach three spans in height — that is, not more 
than seven-and-twenty inches. Their climate is 
salubrious auc! they enjoy a porpotual spring, 
under shelter of a barrier of mountains which rise 
on the north. They aro the same whom Homer 
mentions OjS being harassed by the attacks of 
the cranes. "The story about them is— that 
mounted on tho backs of rams and goats, and 
equipped with arrows, they march down in 
spring-time all in a body to the sea, and destroy 
the eggs and the young of these birds. It takes 
them always three months to finish this yearly 
campaign, and were it not undertaken they 
conld not defend themselves against the vast 
floe ks of subsequent years . T h eir huts are made 
of clay and feathers and egg-shells. [Aristotle 
says that they live in caves, but otherwise he 
gives the same account of (hem as others. J. . . . 

[ 5ft FromKtesias wo learn that there is a people 
belonging to this race, which is called Pando- 
r o and settled in the valleys, who live two hun- 
dred years, having in youth hoary hair, which 
in old age turns black. On tho other hand, 
others do not live beyond the age of forty, — 
nearly related to the M a c r o b i i, whose women 
bear offspring but once. Agatharchides says 
the same of them, adding that they subsist on 
locusts, and are swift of foot.] * Clitarchus and 


Megastheims call them Hand i,% and i*cckon the 
nnrabcr of their villages at three hundred. 
The females bear children at the age of seven, 
and are old women at forty.* 

Fiiagm. XXX.B. 
Solin. 52. 20-30. * 

Near a mountain which is called Nulo there 
live men whose feet are turned backwards and 
have eight toes on each foot. Mogasthenes writes 
that on differeut mountains in India, there arc 
tribes of men with dog- shaped heads, armed with 
claws, clothed with skins, who speak not in the 
accents of human language, but only bark, and 
have fierce grinning jaws. [In Ktesias we read 
that in some parts the females bear offspring but 
once, and that the children are white-haired from 
their birth, &c] 

Those who live near the source of the Ganges, 
requiring nothing in the shape of food, subsist on 
the odour of wild apples, and when they go on a 
long journey they carry these with them for safety 
of their life, which they can support by inhaling 
their perfume. Should thoy inhale very foul air, 
death is inevitable 


Plutarch, de facie in orbe limw. (Opp. ed. Eeisk, 

torn. ix. p. 701.) 

Of the race of men without mouths.f 

For how. could one find growing there that 

T Possibly we should read P a ti d a i, unless perhaps 
MegasthenSs referred to the inhabitants of Mount Man- 

* Conf.Fragm. L. 1, LI. 

t Oonf. Pragm. XXIX. 5, XXX. 3. 


Indian root which Mcgaslhenes says a race 
of men who neither eat nor drink, and in fact 
have not even months, set on fire and burn 
like incense, in order to sustain their existence 
with its odorous fumes, unless it received mois- 
ture from thetnoon ? 


Are. Ind.\l. 1 .-XII.-9. Cf. Epit. 40-53, and Plin. 
Hist. Nat. VI. xxii. 2, 3. 

(See the translation of Arrian's Indika.) 

Frmjm. XXXIII. 
Strab. XV . 1. 39-41, 46-49,— pp. 703-4, 707. 
Of the Seven Cartes among the. Indians. 
(39) According to him (Megastheues) the popu- 
lation of India is divided into seven parts. The 
philosophers are first in rank, but form the 
smallest class in point of number. * Their services 
are employed privately by persons who wish to offer 
sacrifices or perform other sacred rites, and also 
publicly by the kings at what is called the Groat 
Synod) wherein at the beginning of the new 
year all the philosophers are gathered together 
before the king at the gates, when any philoso- 
pher who may have committed any useful sug- 
gestion to writing, or observed any means for im- 
proving the crops and the cattle, or for promot- 
ing the public interests, declares it publicly. * If 
any one is detected giving false information thrice, 
the law condemns him to be silent for the rest of 
his life, but he who gives sound advice is ex- 
empted from paying any taxes or contributions. 


(40) The second caste consists of the h u shun d- 
m e 11, who form the hulk of tho population, and are 
in disposition most mild and gentle. They are 
exempted from military service, and cultivate 
their lauds undisturbed by fear. They never go 
to town, either to take part in its ,tuuaults, or for 
any other purpose. B It therefore not unfrequont- 
ly happens that at the same time, and in the 
same part of the country, men may he seen drawn 
up in array of battle, and fighting at -isk of their 
lives, while other men close at hand arc ploughing 
and digging mperfed security, having these soldiers 
to protect them. The whole of the land is the 
property of the king, and the husbandmen till it on 
condition of receiving one -fourth of the produce. 

(41) °The third caste consists of herdsmen and 
hunters, who alone are allowed to hunt, and to 
keep cattle, and to sell draught animals or let them 
out on hire. In return for clearing the land of 
wild beasts and fowls which devour the seeds 
sown in the fields, they receive an allowance of 
grain from the king. They lead a wandering life 
and live under tents. 

Fiagiii. XXXVI. follows hero. 

[So much, then, on the subject of wild animals. 
We shall now return to MegasthcuSs, and resume 
from where we digressed.] 

(46)' The/bttW/t class, afterhcrdsmenandhunters, 
consists of those who work at trades, of those who 
vend wares, and of those who arc employed in 
bodily labour. Some of these pay tribute, and 
render to the state certain prescribed services. 
But the armour-makers and shipbuilders receive 
wages and their victuals from the king, for whoia. 


alone they work. The general in command of the 
army supplies the soldiers with weapons, and the 
admiral of the fleet lets out ships on hire for the 
transport both of passengers' and merchandize. 

(47) The fifth class consists offlghtingme n, 
who, when not engaged in active service, pass their 
time in idleness and drinking. They are main- 
tained at the king's expenso, and hence they are 
always ready, when occasion calls, to take the 
field, for tl»ey carry nothing of thoh* own with 
them but their own bodies. 

(48) The sixth class consists of the overseers, 
to whom is assigned the duty of watching all that 
goes on, and making reports secretly to tho king. 
Some arc entrusted with tho inspection of the 
city, and others with that of the army. The 
former employ as their coadjutors the courtezans 
of tho city, and the latter tho courtcssans of the 
camp. The ablest and mc-sfc trustworthy men are 
appointed to fill these offices. 

The seventh class cousists of the councillors 
and assessors of the king. To thorn belong the 
highest 'posts of government, the tribunals of 
justice, and the general administration of public 
affairs. J 12 No ono is allowed to marry out of his 

X The Groek writers by confounding some uistinc- 
tions ocoasionod by civil employment with thoso arising 
from that division have increased the number (of, classes) 
from five (including the handicrafts-man or mixed clues) 
to seven. This number is produced by their supposing the 
king's councillors and assessors to form a distinct class 
from tho BrAhmans ; by splitting the class of Vaisya into 
two, consisting of shepherds and husbandmen ; by introduc- 
ing a caste of spies ; and, by omitting the servile class alto- 
gether. With those exceptions the classes are in the state 
described by Menu, which is the groundwork of that still 
subsisting. — Elphiustono's History of India; p. 236. 


own caste, or to exchange one profession or 
trade for another, or to follow more than one 
business. An exception is made in favour of the 
philosopher, who for his virtue is allowed this pri- 


Stnib. XV. 1. 50-52,— pp. 707-709. 
Of the administration of public affairs. 
Of the me of Hornet and Eleplyinls. 
(Fragm. XXX III. has precedent this.) 
(50) Of the great officers of state, some have 
charge of the market, others of the city, others of 
the soldiers. Some snperintond the rivers, mea- 
sure the land, as is done in Egypt, and inspect the 
sluices by which water is let out from the main 
canals into their branchos, so that overy one may 
have an equal supply of it. *Tho samo porsons 
have charge also of the huntsmen, and are en- 
trusted with the power of rewarding or punishing 
them according to their deserts. They collect the 
taxes, and superintend the occupations connect- 
ed with land, as those of the woodcutters, tho 
carpenters, the blacksmiths, and tho miners. 
s They construct roads, and at every ten stadia§ 
set up a pillar to show the by-roads and dis- 
tances. *Those who have charge of the city are 

§ From this it would appear that ten stadia were equal 
to some Indian measure of distance, which must have been 
the krCsa or kosa. If the stadium be tafcen at 202{ yards, 
this would give 2022^ yards for the kos, agreeing with the 
shorter kos of 4,000 h&ths, m use in the Panjflb, and till 
lately, if not still, in parts of Bengal.— Ed. lnd. Ant. 


divided into six bodies of five each. The mem- 
bers of the first look after everything relating to 
the industrial arts. Those of the second attend 
to the entertainment of foreigners. To these 
they assign lodgings, and they keep watch over 
their modes cf life by means of those persons 
whom they gi vo to them for assistants. They escort 
them on tho way when they leave the country, or, 
in the event of their dying, forward their pro- 
perty to their relatives. They tako care of them 
when, thoy aro sick, and if they die bury them. 
*The third body consists of those who inquire 
when and how births and deaths occur, with 
the view not only of levying a tax, but also in 
order that births and deaths among both high 
and low may not escape the cognizance of Gov- 
ernment. "The fourth class superintends trado 
and commerce. Its members have charge of 
weights and measures, and see that the products 
in their season are sold by public notice. No 
one is allowed to deal in more than one kind of 
commodity unless ho pays a double tax. 'The 
fifth class supervises manufactured articles, 
which they sell by public notice. What is new 
is sold separately from what is old, and there 
is a fine for mixing the two togothor. s Tho 
sixth and last class consists of those who col- 
lect the tenths of the prices of tho articles sold. 
Fraud in the payment of this tax is punished 
with death. 
'Such are the functions which those bodies 


separately discharge. Tn their collective capa- 
city they have charge both of their special de- 
partments, and also of matters affecting the 
general interest, as 'the keeping of public build- 
ings in proper repair, the regulation of prices, 
the care of markets, harbourr, and temples. 
'"Next to the city magistrates there is a third 
governing body, which directs military affairs. 
This also consists of six divisions, with live 
members to each. One division is appointed 
to cooperate with the admiral of the fleet, an- 
other with the superintendent of the bullock- 
trains which are used for transporting en- 
gines of war, food for the soldiers, provender 
for the cattle, and other military requisites. 
They supply servants who beat the drum, and 
others who carry gongs ; grooms also for the 
horses, and mechanists and their assistants. 
To the sound of the gong they send out foragers 
to bring in grass, and by a system of rewards 
and punishments ensure the work boing done 
with despatch and safety. "The third* division 
has charge of the foot-soldiers, the fourth of 
the horses, the fifth of the war-chariots, and the 
Bixth of the elephants. 14 Thoro are royal 
stables for the horses and elephants, and also 
a royal magazine for the arms, because the 
soldier has to return his arms to the maga- 
zine, and his horse and his. elephant to the 
stables. ia They use 'the elephants without 
bridles. The chariots arc di'awn on the march 


by oxen, 1 * but the horses are led along by A 
halter, that their legs may not be galled and 
inflamed, nor their spirits damped by drawing 
chariots. "In addition tb the charioteer, there 
are two fighting men who sit up in the chariot 
beside him. % The war-elephant carries four 
men — three who shoot arrows, and the driver. |] 
(Fragm. XXVII. follows.) 

» Pbagm. XXXV. 

iElian, Hist. Anim. XIII. 10. 
Of the use of Ilorscs ami Elephants. 
Cf. Fragm. XXXIV. 13-15. 
When it is said that an Indian by springing 
forward in front of a horse can check his speed 
and hold him back, this is not true of all Indians, 
but only of such as havo been trained from boy- 
hood to manage horses ; for it is a practice with 
them to control their horses with bit and bridle, 
and to make them move at a measured pace and 
in a straight course They neither, however, 
gall their tongue by the use of spiked muzzles, 
nor torturo the roof of their mouth. The pro- 
fessional trainers break them in by forcing 
them to gallop round and round in a ring, es- 
pecially when they soo them refractory. Such 
as undertake this work require to have a strong 
hand as well as a thorough knowledge of 

|i" The fourfold division of tlie army (horse, foot, chariots, 
and elephants was tho name, as that of Menu ; hut Straho 
makes a. sextuple- division, by adding the cominitwariat and 
saval department." 


horses. The greatest proficients lest their skill 
by driving a chariot round and round in a 
ring ; and in truth it would be no trifling 
feat to control with* case a team of four high* 
mettled steeds when whirling round in a circle. 
The chariot carries two men who cat beside the 
charioteer. The war-elephant, cither in what 
is called the tower, or on his bare back in sooth, 
carries three fighting men, of whom two shoot 
from the side, Avhilo one shoots from behind. 
There is also a fourth man, who carries in his 
hand the goad wherewith he guides the animal, 
much in the same way as the pilot and captain 
of a ship direct its courso with thd helm. 

Fbaqm. XXXVI. 
Strab. XV. 1. 41-43,— pp. 704-705. 
Of Elephants. 

Conf. Epit, 54-5C. 
(Fragin. XXXIII. 6 has preceded thin.) 
A private person is not allowed to keep either 
a horse or an elephant. Thcso animals aro held 
to be the special property of tho king, and 
persons are appointed to take care of them. 
3 The manner of hunting the elephant is this. 
Round a baro patch of ground is dug a deep 
trench about five or six stadia in extent, and 
over this is thrown a very narrow bridge which 
gives access to the enclosure. • Into this en- 
closure are introduced three or four of the best- 
trained female elephants. Tho men themselves 
lie in ambush in concealed huts. *The wild 


elephants do not approach tins trap in the day- 
time, but they enter it at night, going in one 
by one. 8 When all have passed the entrance, 
ibe men secretly close it »p ; then, introducing 
tho strongest of the tamo fighting elephants, 
they fight it rfrat with the wild ones, whom at 
the same time they cnfeoblo with hunger. 
6 When the latter are now overcome with fa- 
tigue, the boldest of the drivers dismount un- 
observed, and each man creeps under his own 
elephant, and from this position creeps under 
the belly of the wild elephant and ties his 
feet together. 7 When this is done they incite 
tho tamo ones to beat those whose feet arc tied 
till they fall to the ground. They then bind 
tho wild ones and the tame ones together neck 
to neck with thongs of raw ox-hide. 8 To pre- 
vent them shaking themselves in order to throw 
off those who attempt to mount them, they make 
cuts all round their neck and then put thongs 
of leather into the incisions, so that the pain 
obliges them to submit to their fetters and to 
remain quiet. From the number caught they 
reject such as are too old or too young to be 
serviceable, and the rest they lead away to tho 
stables. Here they tie their feet one to another, 
and fasten their neeks to a firmly fixed pillar, 
and tame them by hunger. 10 After this they 
restore their strength with green reeds and 
grass. They next teach them to be obedient, 
which they effect by soothing them, some by 


coaxing words, and others by songs and the 
mnsio of the dram. " Few of them are fonnd 
difficult to tame, for they are naturally so mild 
and gentlo in their disposition that they approx-» 
imate to rational creatures. Some of them take 
np their drivers when fallen va> battle, and 
carry them off in safety from the field. Others, 
when their masters have sought refuge between 
their forelegs, have fought in their defence aud 
saved their lives. If in a fit of auger they 
kill cither the man who feeds or the man who 
trains them, they pine so much for their loss 
that they refuse to take food, and sometimes 
die of hunger. 

19 They copulate like horses, and the female 
casts her calf chiefly in spring. It is the season 
for the male, when he is in heat and becomes 
ferocious. At this time ho discharges a fatty 
substance through an orifice near the temples. 
It is also the season for the females, when the 
corresponding passago opens. M They go with 
youtig for a period which varies from sixteen to 
eighteen months. The dam suckles her calf 
for. six years. u Most of them live as long as 
men who attain extreme longevity, and some live 
over two hundred years. They are liable to many 
distempers, and are not easily cured. lD The 
remedy for diseases of the eye is to wash it with 
cows' milk. For most of their other diseases 
draughts of black wine are administered to them. 
For the cure of their wounds they are made to 


swallow batter, for this draws out iron. Their 
sores are. fomented with swine's flesh. 

Pbacm. XXXVII. 
• Arr. IiuL ch. W-14. 

(Fragm. XXXI I. comes before this.) 
(Sec tho translation of Arriau's Indika.) 

[Fbacm. XXXVII. B.] 
iElian, HUt. Anim. XII. 41. 
Of Elephants. 
(Cf. Fragm. XXXVI. 9-10 and XXXVII. 9-10 
init. c. XIV). 
In India an elephant if caught when full-grown is diffi- 
cult to tame, and longing for freedom thirsts for bluod. 
Should it be bound in chains, this exasperates il still more, 
and it will not submit to a master. The Indians, however, 
coax it with food, and seel: to pacify it with various things 
for which it has a liking, their aim being to fill its stomach 
and to soothe its temper. But it is still angry with them, 
and takes no notice of them. To what device do they then 
resort ? They sing to it their native melodies, and sootho 
it with tho music of an instrument iu common use which 
has four strings and is called a skindapsos. Tho creature 
now pricks up its ears, yields to the soothing strain, and its 
anger subsides. Then, though there is au occasional out- 
burst of its suppressed passion, it gradually turns its cyo to 
its food. It is then freed from its bonds, but docs not seek 
to escape, being enthralled with the music. It even takes* 
food eagerly, and, like a luxurious guest riveted to tho 
festive board, has no wish to go, from its love of tho music. 

Pragm. XXXVIII. 

./Elian, Hist. Anim. XIII. 7- 

Of the diseases of Elephants. 

(Cf. Pragm. XXXVI. 15 and XXXVII. 15.) 

Tho Indians cure the wounds of tho elephants 

which they catch, in the manner following : — 

They treat them in the way in which, as good old 


Homer tells us, Patrofclos treated the wonnd of 
Eurypylos, — they foment them with lukewarm 
water.^f After this they rub thein over with but- 
ter, and if they are daep allay the inflammation \jy 
applying and inserting pieces of pork, hot but 
still retaining the blcod. They rjire ophthalmia 
with cows' milk, which is first used as a foment- 
ation for tho eye, and is then injected into it. 
The animals open their eyelids, and finding they 
can sec better are delighted, and ar8 sensible of 
the benqfil liko human beings. In pi*oportion as 
their blindness diminishes their delight over- 
flows, and this is a token that the disease has 
been cared. Tho remedy for other distempers 
io which tboy are liable is black wine ; and if 
this potion fails to work a cure nothing else can 
save them. 

Puaom. XXXIX. 

Strab. XV. 1. 41,— p. 70G. 

Of Gold-digging Ants.* 

Mogastbenfis gives the following aicount of 

those ants. Among the Derdai, a great tribe 

of Indians, who inhabit the mountains on the 

f See llia-l, bk. XL 845. 

* Soo Ind. Ant. vol. IV. pp. 225 fnqq. whom cogent argu- 
ments am adduced to prove that tho ' gold-digging ants' 
were originally neither, as the ancients supposed, real ants, 
nor, as so many eminent men of learning have supposed, 
larger animals mistaken for ants on account of their ap- 
pearance and snhterrancaii habits, hot Tibetan miners, 
whore mode of life and dress was in the remotest antiquity 
exactly what they are at the present day. 


eastern borders,! there is an elevated plateau* 
about 3,000 stadia in circuit. Beneath the 
surface there are mines of gold, aud here ac- 
cordingly are found tho antS which dig for tliat 
metal. They are not inferior in size to 'wild 
foxes. They run with amazing speed, and live 
by the produce of the chase. Tho time when 
they dig is winter. § They throw up heaps of 
earth, as moles do, at tho mouth of the mines. 
The gold-dust has to be subjected to a little boil- 
ing. Tho people of the neighbourhood, coming 
secretly with beasts of burden, carry this off. If 
thoy came openly tho ants would attack them, 
and pursue them if thoy fled, and would destroy 
both them and their cattle. . So, to ofl'ect tho rob- 
bery without being observed, they lay down in 
several different places pieces of tho flesh of 
wild beasts, and when tho ants are by this do- 
vice dispersed they carry off the gold-dust. 

t Thcso are the Dardra of Pliny, tko Daradrai of 
1'toleniy, andtheDavadaa of Sanscrit literature. "Tho 
Darda are not an extinct race. According to the accounts 
of modern travellers, they consist of several wild and pre- 
datory tribos dwelling among the mountains on tho north* 
wost frontier of Kasmlr and by the banks of the Indus." 
lad. Ant. he. eit. 

J The table-land of Chojotol, sec Jour. R. Gcog. Soc. 
vol. XXXIX. pp. 149 seqq.—Eo. Ind. Ant. 

§ "Tho miners of Thok-Jalung, in spite of the cold, 
prefer working in winter ; and tho number of their tents, 
which in summer amounts to three hundred, rises to 
nearly six hundred in winter. They prefer the winter, as 
the frozen soil then stands well, and is not likely to trouble 
them much by falling in."— Id. 


This they sell to any trader they meet with|| 
while it is still in the state of ore, for the art of 
fusing metals is unknown to them.^j 

I&acim. XL. * 

Arr. Ind. XV.-5-7. 

(See tho translation of Arriant Indika.) 

[Fkacm. XL. B.] 

Dio Chrysost. Or. 35,— p. 436, Moroll. 

Of Ants which dig Jot gold, 
(Cf. Fragm. XXXIV. and XL.) 
Thoy got the gold from ants. These creatures aro larger 
than foxes, bat aro in other respects liko tho ants of our 
own country. They dig holes in the earth liko other ants. 
Tho heap which they throw up consists of gold tho purest 
and brightest in all tho world. Tho mounds are piled up 
close to each other in regular order liko hillocks of gold 
dust, whereby all tho plain is made effulgent, it is difficult, 
therefore, to look towards tho sun, and .many who liavo at- 
tempted to do this havo thereby destroyed their eyesight. 
The people who aro next neighbours to tho nnts, with a 
view to plunder these heaps, cross tho intervening desert, 
which is of no great oxtont, mounted on wagons to which 
they have yoked their swiftest horses. They arrivo at 
noon, a time when tho ants havo gono underground, and at 

|l T« w\6vn t&v fftmlpav. If tho different reading 
row rv)((tvTos rois ipiropots bo adopted, the rendering is, 
" They dispose of it to merchants at any price." 

f Cf. Herod. III. 102-105 ; Arrian, Anab. V. 4 7 ; -/Elian, 
Hist. Anim. II r. 4; Clem. Alex. l'<rd. II. p. 207; Tactz. 
Ohil. XII. 330-340 ; Plin. Hist. Nat. XT. 3<i, XXXIII. 21 ; 
J'ropert. III. 13. 5 j Pomp. Mel. VI 1. 2 j Isidor. Orig. XII. 3 ; 
Albert Mag. He AniuuU. T. VI. p. 678, ex subdititiis 
Alexandri opistolis; Anonym. Do Monstris ct BeUuis, 259, 
od. Bergerdc Xivroy ; Iliilostratus, Vil. Apollon. VI. 1 ;aml 
Huliodorus, sKth. X. 26, p. 495 ; also Gildcmeistor, Script. 
Arab, do reb. hid. p. 220-221, and 120 ; Husbcquius, hega. 
iionis Turcica: Ityixt. IV. >,p. HI, or Thaunus XXIV. 7, 
p. 809.— Sehwanbcck, p. 73. 


once seizing the hooty make off at full speed. The ants, 
on learning what liaR hoen dono, pursue tho fugitives, and 
. overtaking them fight with thorn till thoy conquer or die, 
for of all animals thoy are tho moat courageous. It hence 
%>pears that they understand tho worth of gold, and that 
tbey will sacrifice their Uvea rather than part with it. 

• Fkagm. XLI. 
Strab. XV. 1. 68-60,— pp. 711-714. 
Of the Indian Philosophers'. 

'JTragiu. XXIX. has proccded this.) 
(58) Speaking of tho philosophers, ho (Megas- 
lliout's) says that such of thorn as live ou the 
mountains arc worshippers of Dionysos, shov- 
ing as proofs that he had come among them tho 
wild vine, which grows in their country only, 
and the ivy, and the laurel, and the myrtle, 
and the box-tree, and other evergreens,- nono 
of which are found beyond the Euphrates, ex- 
cept a few in parks, which it requires great 
care to preserve. Thoy observo also certain 
customs which are Bacchanalian. Thus they 
dress in muslin, wear the turban, use perfumes, 
array themselves in garments dyed of bright 
colours ; and their kings, when they appear in 
public, arc preceded by the music of drums and 
gongs. But the philosophers who livo on the 
plains worship Herakles. [These accounts are 
fabulous, and are impugned by many writers, 
especially what is said about the vine and 
wino. For the greater part of Armenia, and 
the whole of Mesopotamia and Media, onwards 
to Persia and Karmauia, lie beyond the Eu- 


phrates, and throughout a great part of each of 
these countries good vines grow, and good 
wine is produced.] 

(59) Megasthones rriakes a different division' 
of the philosophers, saying that they are of two 
kinds — one of which ho calls tho Btachmanes, 
and the other the S arm an os.* ThoBrach- 
manes are best esteemed, for thoy aromorc 
consistent in their opinions. From the time of 
their conception in the womb they aro under 
the guardian care of learned men, who go to 
tho mother and, under tho prctenco of using 
some incantations for the welfare of herself and 
her unborn babo, in reality givo her prudent 
hints and counsels. Tho women who listen most 
willingly aro thought to bo the most fortunate in 
their children . A ftcr their birth tho children aro 
under tho caro of ono person after another, and as 

* " Since the word Sappavas (tlio form used by Cle- 
mens of Alexandria) corresponds to tho letter with tho 
Sanskrit word flrtiwiawa (i.e. an ascotic), it is evident that 
the forms Yappavas and Ytpyutvas, which aro fouiid in all 
tho MSS. of Strabo, aro incorrect. Tho mistake need not 
surprise us, since tho 2A whon closely written together 
differ little in form from tho syllablo l'A. In the same 
way Clement's 'AXAo^toi must bo changed into Strabo'a 
Y\6[iioi, corresponding with tho Sanskrit Vamnyraslha — 
' the man of tho first three castes who, after tho term of 
his householdership has expired, has entered the third 
6Arwm* or ordor, and has proceoded (prastha) to a lif e in tho 
woods (Viwt).' " — Sohwanbock, p. 46 ; H. H. Wilson, Qloss. 
' It is a capital question," ho adds, " who the Sarmanra 
were, some considering them to be Buddhists, and others 
denying them to bo such. Weighty arguments aro adduced 
on both sides, but tho opinion of those soems to approach 
noarer the trnth who contend that they were Buddhists." 


they advance in age each succeeding master is 
more accomplished than his predecessor. The 
philosophers have their abode in a grove in front 
•of the city. withm.a.nig^ftj^sizeSjeftcJiifflBre. 
They livo in tt, simple style, and lie on beds of 
rashes or ((Jeer) skins. They abstain from 
animal food and sexual ploasures, and spend 
their time in listening to serious discpurse, and 
in imparting their knowledge to sttch as will 
listen to \hem. The hearer is not allowed to 
speak, or even to cough, and much less to spit, 
and if he offends in any of these ways ho is cast 
out from their society that very day, as being 
a man who is wanting in self-restraint. After 
living in this manner for sevon-and-thirty years, 
each individual retires to his own property, where 
he lives for therost of his days in case and secu- 
rity, t They then array themsolvcs in fine muslin, 
and wear a few trinkets of gold on their fingers 
and in their cars. They eat flesh, but not that of 
animals employed in labour. They abstain from 
hot and highly seasoned food. Thoy marry as 
many wives as they please, with a view to have 

t " A mistake (of the Greek writers) originates in their 
ignoranccof tho fourfold division of aBrAhman's life. Thus 
they speak of men who had been for many years sophists 
marrying and returning to common life (alluding probably 
to a student who, having completed the austerities of the 
iirst period, becomos n. householder) :" Blphiustono's His- 
tory of India, p. 236, whoroit is also remarked that the 
writors orronoously prolong tho period during which students 
listen to their instructors in silence and respect, making it 
extend in all cases to thirty-sovon, which is the greatest 
age to whiuh Manu (chap. III. sec. 1) permits it in any 
oaso to be protracted. 


numerous children, for by having many wives 
greater advantages are enjoyed, and, since- they 
have no slaves, they have more need to "have 
children around thom»to attend to their wants. ■ 

The Brachmanes do not communicate a know- 
ledge of philosophy to their wiijes, lest they 
should divulge any of the forbidden mysteries 
to the profane if they became depraved, or lest 
they should desert them if they became good 
philosophers : for no one who despises pleasure 
and pain, as well as life and death, wishes to be 
in subjection to another, but this is characteris- 
tic both of a good man and of a good woman. 

Death is with them a very frequent subject 
of discourse. They regard this life as, so to 
speak, the time when the child within the 
womb becomes mature, and death as a birth 
into a real and happy life for the votaries of 
philosophy. On this account thoy undergo 
much discipline as a preparation for death. 
They consider nothing that befalls mo i to be 
either good or bad, to suppose otherwise being 
a dream-like illusion, else how could some be 
affected with sorrow, and others with ploasure, 
by the very samo things, and how could tho 
same things affect tho same individuals at dif- 
ferent times with these opposite emotions ? 

Their ideas about physical phenomena, the 
same author tells us, are very crude, for they are 
butter iu their actions than in their reasonings., 
iuatsmuch as their belief is iu great measure 


based upon fables ; yet on many points their 
opinions coincide with those of the Greeks, for 
like them they say that the world had a begin- 
ning, and is liable to destruction, and is in shape 
spherical, and that the Deity who made it, and 
who governs it^is diffused through all its parts. 
They hold that various first principles operate 
in the universe, and that water was the prin- 
ciple employed in the making of the world. In 
addition to the four elements there is a fifth 
agency, from which the heaven and the stare 
were producod.J Tho earth is placed in the 
centre of tho universe. Concerning generation, 
and tho nature of the soul, and many other 
subjects, they express views like those main- 
tained by the Greeks. They wrap up their 
doctrines about immortality and fnturo judg- 
ment, and kindred topics, in allegories, after 
the manner of Plato. Such are his statements 
l'Cgarding the Brachmanes. 
(CO) Of the Sarmanosfhe tells us that 

1 /{frflstt, ' the oilier or sky.' 

fc Schwanbeck argues from the distinct separation here 
made botween tho Brachmanes and the Sarmanes, as well as 
from tho name sminima being especially applied to Baud- 
dlni teachers, that the latter are hero meant. They are 
called 2apav(iiot by Bardesanes (ap. Porphyr. Abstin. IV. 
17) and Alox. Polyhistor. (ap. Cyrill. eontra JuUam. IV. p. 
13.1 B, ed. Paris, 1638). Conf. also Hieronym. ad Jovinian. 
1L. (ed. Paris, 1706, T. II.pt. n. p. 206). And this is just the 
Pali name Swinmana, tho equivalent of tho Sanskrit firo- 
7nn.no,. Bohlon in Do Jivddhaismi origine et winte defini- 
endis sustains this view, but Lassen (Bhcin.Miis.fiir Phil. 
1. 171 ff.) contends that tho description agrees better with 
tho Brahman ascetics. Sec Sohwsinbeck, p. 45(F. and Las- 
sen, Ind. Alierth. (2nd ed). II. 705, ur (lat ed.) 11. 700. 


those who arc held in most honour are called 
the Hylobioi.|| They live in the woods, 
where they subsist on leaves of trees and wild 
fruits, and wear garments made from the balk 
of trees. They abstain from sexual intercourse 
and from wine. They communicate with the 
kings, who consult them by messengers regard- 
ing the causes of tilings, and who through them 
worship and supplicate the deity. Next in 
honour to the Hylobioi are the physicians, since 
they are engaged in the study of the nature of 
man. They are simple in their habitB, but do not 
live in the fields. Their food consists of rice and 
biuiley-moal, which thoy can always get for tho 
mcro asking, or receive from those who enter- 
tain them as guests in their houses. By their 
knowledge of pharmacy they can make mar- 
riages fruitful, and determine the sex of the 
offspring. They effect cures rather by regulat- 
ing diet than by the use of medicines. Tho 
remedies most esteemed arc ointments and plas- 
ters. All others they consider to be in a great 
measure pernicious in their nature.^ - This class 
and tho other class practise fortitude, both by 
undergoing active toil, and by tho endurance of 
pain, so that they remain for a whole day mo- 
tionless in one fixed attitude.* 

|| Scr noto* page 98. 

% " Tho habits of tho physicians," Elplunetono remarks, 
"seem to correspond with, thoso of Brnhinans of tho fourth 
t * " It. is indeed," says the saino authority, " a romarkablo 


Besides these there arc diviners and sorcerei's, 
and adepts in tho rites and customs relating to 
tho dead, who go about begging both in villages 
and towns. 

Even such of them as arc of superior culture 
and refinement Inculcate such superstitions re- 
garding Hades as they consider favourable to 
piety and holiness of life. Women pursue phi- 
losophy with 4 somo of them, but abstain from 
sexual intercourse. 


Clem. Alex. Bin-am. I. p. 805 D (cd. Colon. 1(588). 

That tho Jewish race is by far the oldest of 
all these, and that their philosophy, which has 
been committed to writing, preceded the philo- 
sophy of tho Greeks, Philo tho Pythagorean shows 
by many arguments, as docs also Aristoboulos 
tho Peripatetic, and many others whoso names 
I need not wasto time in enumerating. Mcgas- 
tlioncs, the author of a work on India, who lived 
with SoleukosNikator, writcB most clearly 
on this point, and his words aro these : — " All that 
has been said regarding nature by the ancients is 
asserted also by philosophers out of Greece, on the 
one part in India by the Brachmancs, and on the 
other in Syria by tlie people called the Jews." 

circtunstanco that the religion of Buddha should never have % 
been expressly noticed by the Greek authors, though it had 
existed for two centuries before Alexander. Tho only ox- 
plaimtion is that the appearance and mannero of its fol- 
lowers were not so peculiar as to enable a foreigner to 
distinguish them from the mass of the people." 


Fragh. XLIT.B. 

Enseb. rrwp. Ev. IX. 6,— pp. 410 C, D (ed. Colon. 1G38). 

Ex Clem. Alex. 

Again, in addition to this, farther on he writes 
thus : — 

" Megasthen6s, tho writer whr< lived with Se- 
leukoB Nikator, writes most clearly on this point 
and to this effect :— * All that has. been said,' " &c. 

Feagm. XLII.C. 
Cyrill. Contra Julian. IV. (Opp. od. PaAs, 1038, T. VI. 

p. 134 Al. ito Clom. Alex.t 
Aristoboulos the Peripatetic somewhere writes 
to thia effect : — " All that has been said," &c. 


Clom. Alex. Strom. I. p. 305, A, B (ed. Colon. 1C8S). 
Of the Philosophers of India. 

[Philosophy, then, with all its blessed advantages to man, 
flourished long ages ago among the barbarians, diffusing its 
light among the Gontiles, aud eventually penetrated into 
Greece. Its hicrophants woro tho prophets among tho Egyp- 
tians, tho Chaldaoans among the Assyrians, the Druids among 
tho Gauls, tho S a r m a n m a n s who were tho philosophers 
of the BaktrianB and the Kelts, the Magi among the 
Persians, who, as you know, announced beforehand tho 
birth of tho Saviour, being led by a star till they arrived 
in the land of Judaea, and among the Indians tho Gymno- 
sophists, and other philosophers of barbarous nations,] 

There arc two sects of these Indian philoso- 
phers — one called the Sarmanai and the other 
tho Brachmanai. Connected with the Sarmanai 
arc the philosophers called the H y 1 o b i o i, J who 

t " Tn this passage, though Cyril follows Clemens, he 
wrongly attributes the narrative of Megasthones to Aristo- 
boulos tho Peripatetic, whom Clemens only praises."— 
Sehwanbock, p. B0. 

I The reading of the MSS is Allobioi. 


neither live in cities nor even in houses. They 
clothe themselves with the bark of trees, and sub- 
sist upon acorns, and drink water by lifting it to 
iilioir mouth with their hands. They neither marry 
j lor beget children [like those ascetics of our own 
day called the Enkratotai. Among the Indians are 
those philosoiiliers also who follow the precepts 
of B o u 1 1 a,§ whom they honour as a god on ac- 
count of his extraordinary sanctity.] 

§ V. 1. iiovra. — The passage admits of a differont ren- 
dering : " Thoy (tho Hylobioi) arc thoso among tbo Indiana 
wbo follow the precepts of Boutta." Colubrooke in his 06- 
.<crvaiiims on the Sect of the Jains, baa quoted this passage 
from Clemens to controvert tho opinion that tho religion 
and institutions of tho orthodox Hindus aro morn modern 
than the doctrines of Jina and of Buddlut. " Here," he 
says, " to my apprehension, the followers of Buddha aro 
clearly distinguished from the Braehmanes and Sarmaues. 
The latter, called Germanes by Strabo, and Samanreaus 
by Porphyrius, ars tho ascetics of a different religion, 
ami may have belonged to the sect of Jina, or to another. 
The Braehmanes aro apparently those who aro described by 
I'hilostratua and Uicroclcs as worshipping tho sun j and 
by Strabo and by Arriau as performing sacrifices for the 
common benefit of tho nation, aa well as for individuals ... 
Thoy aro expressly discriminated from the sect of Buddha 
by one ancient author, and from tho Sarmanos (a) or Soma- 
ncuans (ascetics of various tribes) by others. They are de- 
scribed by moro than one authority as worshipping the sun, 
as performing sacrifices, and as denying the eternity of tlio 
world, and maintaining other tenets incompatible with the 
supposition that the sects of Buddha or Jina could bo 
meant. Their manners and doctrine, as described by 
tboso authors, aro quite conformablo with tbo notions and 
practice of tho orthodox Hindus. It may therefore bo 
confidently inferred that tho followers of the Vedua flour- 
ished in India when it was visited by the Greeks under 
Alexander, and continued to flourish from tho time of 
jregasthenes, who described them in the fourth century 
boforo Christ, to that of Porphyrius, who speaks of them, on 
later authority, in the third century after Christ." 

(it) Samana is the Pali form of the older tframaua. 



Fragm. XL1V. 

stmb. xy. i. <ss,— p . rib. 

Of Kulanos and Mandanis. 

Mcgasthencs, however, says that sol ("-destruc- 
tion is not a dogma of tho philosophers, but 
that such as commit tho act are regarded as 
foolhardy^ those naturally of a severe tem- 
per stabbing themselves or casting themselves 
clown a precipice, those averse to puiu drown- 
ing themselves, those capable of enduring 
pain strangling themselves, and those of 
ardent temperaments throwing themselves into 
the fire. K a 1 a n o s was a man of this stamp. 
He was ruled by his passions, and became a 
slavo to the table of Alexander. || He is on 
this account condemned by his countrymen, but 
Mandanis is applauded because when mes- 
sengers from Aloxander invited him to go to the 
son of Zeus, with the proinisoof gifts if he com- 
plied, and threats of punishment if ho refused, he 
did not go. Alexander, he said, was not the son 
of Zeus, for he was not so much as master of 
the larger half of the world. As for himself, 

|| "Kolanos followed the Makedonian army from Taxila, 
and when afterwards taken ill burnt liimBelf ou a funoral pyre 
in the presence of the whole Makedonian army, without 
evincing any symptom of pain. Ilia real name, according 
to Plutarch, was Sphinos, and he received the name Kalanoa 
among the Greeks because in saluting persons he used the 
form koK4 instead of tho Greek gatpe. What Plutarch 
here calls xaXe is probably the Sanskrit form kalyHna, 
which is commonly used "u addressing a person, and 
signifies ' good, just) or distiuguished.' "—Smith's Qlassica I 


lie wanted none of (he gifts of a man whose 
desires nothing could satiate ; and as for his 
threats ho feared them not :.for if he lived, India 
toould supply him with fbod enough, and if he 
died, ho would bo delivered from the body of 
flesh now afflicted with age, and would bo trans- 
lated to a better and a purer life. Alexander ex- 
pressed admiration of the man, and let him 
have his own way. 

Praam. XLV. 

Arr. VII. ii. 3-9. 
(Sec the translation of Arrian's Indika.) 

Fkahm. XLVI. 

Strab. XV. I. G-8,— pp. CSG-68S. 

T/utt the Indians had never beon al kicked by 

other*, nor had themselves attacked others. 

(Cf. Kpit. 23.) 

6. But what just reliance can wo place on the 

accounts of India from such expeditions as those of 

Kyi*os and Somiramis ?% Mcgasthcnos concurs in 

this view, and recommends his readers to put no 

% " Tho expedition of Semiramis as described by Dio- 
riorus Siculus (II. 10-10), who followed tho Axsyriaha 
of Ktesias, has almost tho character of a legend abounding 
with puerilities, and is entirely destitute of those geogra- 
phical details which stamp ovonts with reality. If thin 
expedition is roal, as on other grounds we may believe it to 
be, some traces will assuredly be found of it in the cunei- 
form inscriptions of Ninovoh, which are destined to throw 
go much unexpected light on the ancient history of Asia. 
It has already been behoved possible to draw from these 
inscriptions the foundations of a positive chronology which 
will fully confirm the indications given by Herodotus as 


Ruth in the ancient history of India. Its people, 
ho says, never sent an expedition abroad, nor was 
their country ever invaded and conqnered except 
by Heraklcs and Dionysos in nhl times, and hy 
tho Makedonians in our own. Yot Scsostris 
the Egyptian* and Tcarkdn the Ethiopian ad- 

fco tho cpouh of Somiramis, in fixing tho epoch of this 
celebrated queen in the 8th. ccrtary of our era — an epoch 
which is quite in harmony with tho du&a which wo possess 
from other sources regarding the condition of tho North- 
West of India after tho Vcdic times. 

" Kyros, towards the middle of tho Cth century of our 
era, must also have carried his arms even to tho Indus. 
Historical tradition attributed to him. the destruction of 
Kapisa, an important city in tho upper region of tho 
Kxjphes (riin. VI. 23); and in tho lower region the 
Assakoniaus and the Astakenutns, itidigeuous tribes of 
Gundara, aro reckoned among bis tributaries (Arrian, 
IruUka, I. 3). Tradition further recounted that, in return- 
ing from his expedition into India, Kyros hod seen bis 
whole army perish in tho deserts of Gcdrosia ( Arr. Anal. 
VI. 24. 2). Tho Vcrsian domination in theso districts has 
left more than one trace in tho geographical nomenclature. 
It is suilicicnt to recall tho namo of tho Khoaspcs, one 
of tlie great affluents of the K»phcs. 

" Whatever be tho real historical character of the expedi- 
tions of Semiramis and Kyros, it is certain that their eon- 
quests on the' Indus were only temporary acquisitions, 
since at tho epoch when Darcioa HystaspGs mounted the 
throno the eastern frontier of tho empire did not go 
beyond Arakhosia (tho Haraqaiti of tho Zend texts, tho 
Hwaonvatis of tho cuneiform inscriptions, tho A'/rohhadj 
of Musalman geography, tho provinces of Kandakdr and 
of Ohttzni of existing geography)— that is to gay, the parts 
of Afghanistan _ which lie east of the Sulinifin chain of 
mountains. This fact is established by tho great trilingual 
inscription of Bisontoun, which indicates tho last eastern 
countries to which Dareios bad earned his arms at the 
epoch when the monument was erected. This was before 
he had achieved his well-known conquest of tho valley of 
the Indus." — St. Martin, M'tiutesur latGtogra/phicGrecqite 
el LaMiie de I'Inde, pp. 14 wjq. 

* Sesostris (called Sea-usis hy Diodorns) has generally 
been identified with Itamscs the third king of the 19th 
dynasty of JJlancth'., tho j>i>n of Set), and the father of 


vaiiced as far as Europe. And Nabukodrosor.f 
who is more renowned among the Ckaldtcans 
than even Heraklcs among the Greeks, carriod 
Ms arraa to the Pillars, J 'which Tcarkon also' 
reached, while Ses&stris penetrated from Iberia 
even into Thtoco and Pontos. Besides these 
there was Idanthyrsos the Skythian, who over- 
ran Asia as far as Egypt.§ But* not one 
of these ^rcat conquerors approached India, 
and Scniiramis, who meditated its conquest, 
died before the necessary preparations were 
undertaken. The Persians indeed summoned 
the II y d r a k a i|| from India to serve as mer- 
cenaries, but they did not lead an arniy into the 
sounlry, and only approached its borders when 
Kyros marched against the M a s s a g c t a i. 

Of Dionijsos and Heraklcs, 

7. The accounts about Heraklcs and 

Mcncphthab the Pharaoh of the Kxodus. Lepsius, how- 
ever, from a study of the Tablet of JUunescs IT. found at 
Abydoe in Egypt, and now in the British Museum, has) 
boon led to identify him with tho Sesortasen or Orfirhuscu 
of tho great 12th dynasty. — Seo Report oj the Yroceeilings 
of the Second International Congress of OrienMists, 
p. 44. 

+ V.l. Na/SoKoSnoo-opov. 

j Called by Ptolemy the " Pillars of Alexander," above 
Albania and Iberia at the commencement of tho Asiatic 
Sarin iitia. 

§ Herodotus mentions an invasion of Skythians which 
was led by Madyas. As Idanthyrsos may hiivo been a 
common appellative of tho Skythian kings, Strabo may 
here bo referring to that invasion. 

|| Tho Hydiakai are called also Oxydrakai. Tho name, 
iwcording to Lassen, represents the Sanskrit Kshurfmkn. 
Ik in variously written jSydrakai, Syrakusai, Sabagrao, and 



D ionysoe, Mcgaslhenfis and some few au- 
thors with him consider entitled to credit, [bat 
the majority, among whom is Eratosthenes, 
consider them incredible and fabulous, like tic 

stories current among the Greeks ] 

8. On such grounds they calied a particular 
race of people Nyssaians, and their city Ny ssa,^[ 
which Dionysos had founded, and the moun- 
tain which rose above the city Moron, assigning 
as their reason for bestowing these names that 
ivy grows there, and also the vine, although its 
fruit docs not como to perfection, as the clusters, 
on account of the heaviness of the rains, fall off 
tho trees before ripening. They further dalled 
the Oxydrakai descendants of Dionysos, be- 
cause tho vine grew in their country, and their 
processions were conducted with great pomp, 
and their kings on going forth to war and on 
other occasions marched in Bacchic fashion, with 
drums beating, while they were dressed in gay- 
coloured robes, which is also a custom among 
other Indians. Again, when Alexander had 
captured at the first assault the rock called 
A o r n o s, the base of which is washed by the In- 
dus near its source, his followers, magnifying the 
affair, affirmed that Herakles had thrice assaulted 
the same rock and had been thrice repulsed.* They 

IT V. 11. Nvo"aiovr,Nwo-ai». 

* This celebrated rock has beon identified by General 
Cmmiugham with the ruined fortress of Rant gat, 
situated immediately above the small village of Nogrfim, 
which lies about sixteen miles* north by west from 


said also that the S i b a e were descended from 
those who accompanied Herakles on his expedi- 
tion, and that they preserved badges of their de- 
scent, for they wore skins li&c Herakles, and car- 
ried clubs, and branded the mark of a cudgel on 
their oxen and mules.f In support of this story 
they tnrn to account the legends regarding Kau- 
kasos and Prometheus by transferring them 
hither from Pontos, which they did on the slight 
pretext that they had seen a sacred cave among 
the Paropamisadae. This they declared 
was the prison of Promothens, whither Hera- 
kles had come to effect his deliverance, and that 
this was the Kaukasos, to which the Greeks 
represent Prometheus as having been bound. J 

Okind, which he takes to be (be Einbolinia of the 
ancients. " RAnigat," he says, " or the Queen's rock, is a 
large upright block on the north edge of the fort, on which 
Rfrja V a r a's rant is said to have seated herself daily. The 
fort itself is attributed to Riija Vara, and some ruins at the 
foot of the hill arc called Rftja Vara's stables ... f think, 
therefore, that the hill-fort of Aoruos most probably derived 
its name from R&ja Vara, and that the mined fortress of 
Rani gat has a better claim to he identified with the 
Aornos of Alexander than either the Mabfibau hill of Gen- 
eral Abbott, or the castlo of RAja llodi proposed by General 
Courtand Mr. Loewenthal." See Grote's llisturij of India, 
vol. VIII. pp. 437-8, footnote. 

f According to Curtius, the Sibae, whom lie calls Sobii, 
occupied tho country between the Hydaspes and the Ake- 
sines. They may havo derived their name from the god 


% " No writer before Alexander's time mentions tho 
Indian gods. The Makedonians, when they came into 
India, in accordance with the invariable practice of the 
Greeks, considered the gods of tho country to bo the same 
as their own. &va they were led to identify with Bacchus 
on their observing the unbridled license and somewhat 
Bacchic fashion of his worship, and because they traced 


Vbaum. XLVII. 

Arr. hul. V. 4-12. 

(See the translation of Arriau'a huVrta.) 

Fbaoti. XLVIII. 
Joscphus Contm jlptoii. I. 20 (T. II. p. 151, Havere.). 


Of Nahtichodrosor. 
(Of. Fragin. XLVI. 2.) 

Mogasthcncs also expi esses the same opinion 
in I ha 4th hook of his Tndtha, where he endeavours 
lo show that the aforesaid king of the Baby- 
lonians (Nabonchodonosor) surpassed Horakles 
in courage and the greatness of his achieve- 
ments, by telling us that he conquered even 

Fkagm. XLVIII. B. 

Joseph. Ant. Jud. X. ii, 1 (T. I. p. 53>H, Havere). 
[In this place (Nabouchodonosor) erected also 
of stone elevated places for walking about on, 

some slight resemblance between the attributes of the two 
deities, and between the names belonging to the inythio 
conception of each. Nor was anything easier, after 
Euripides had originated the fiction that Dionysos had 
roamed over the East, than to suppose that the god of 
luxuriant fecundity had made his way to India, a country 
ho remarkable for its fertility. To confirm this opinion 
thoy niado nso of a slight und accidental agreement in 
names. Thus Mount Mcrn seemed an indication of tho 
god who sprang from the thigh of Zeus («k 6*i6j prjpov). 
Tliiw they thought tho Kydrakra (Oxydrukai) the offspring 
of Dionysos because the vine grow in their country, and they 
saw that their lungs displayed great pomp in their proces- 
sions. On equally slight grounds they identified Krishna, 
another god whom they saw worshipped, with Herakles j 
and wheuever, as among the Sibae, they saw the skius of 
wild beasts, or clubs, or the liko, they assnmed that Hera- 
kles had at some time or other dwelt there."— Schwaub. 
p. 43. . 


which had to the eye the appearance of mountains, 
and were so contrived that they were planted 
with all sorts of trees, because his wife, who had 
b«en bred up in tho land of Media, wished her 
surroundings to he like those of her early home.] 
Megastheni's njso, iii the Mh hook of his Jndlka, 
makes mention of these things, and thereby 
endeavours to show that this king surpassed 
Heraklcs in courage and the greatness of his 
achievements, for he says that he conquered 
Libya and a great p^,rt of I bona. 

FaAiiJf. XLVIII. C. 

Zonar. ed. Basil. 1557, T. 1. p. 87. 
Among the many old historians who mention 
Nabouchodonosor, Josephos enun, orates Berd- 
sos, Megasthenes, and Dioklfis. 

Fragm. XLVIII. D. 

G. Syueoll. T. i. p. 419, ed. Bunn. (p. 221 ed. Paris, p. 177 
ed. Vutiet.). 

Megasthen&s, in his fourth hooh of the Indika t 
represents Nabouchodonosor as mightier than 
Hdrakles, because with groat courage and enter- 
prise he conquered the greater part of Libya 
and Iberia. 

Fragm. XL1X. 

Abyden. up. Eweb. Pi-mp. fc'u. I. 41 (ed. Colon. 1688, 
p. 450 D). 

Of Nabouchudrosor. 

Megasthenes says that Nabouchodrosor, who 

was mightier than Herakles, undertook an ex- 


peditioa against Libya and Iberia, and that 
having conquered them he planted a colony of 
these people in the parts lying to the right of 
Fontos. l 

Fragm. L. 

Arr. Ind. 7-9. 

(See the translation of Arrian's Indika.) 

Fragm. L.B. 

Plin. Hist. Nat. IX. 5u. 

Of Pearls. 

Some writers allege that in swarms of oysters, 
as among bees, individuals distinguished for size 
aud beauty act as leaders. These are of wonder- 
ful cunning in preventing themselves being 
caught, and are eagerly sought for by the divers. 
Should they be caught, the others are easily 
enclosed in the nets as they go wandering about. 
They are then put into earthen pots, where they 
are buried deep in salt. By this process the flesh 
is all eaten away, and the hard concretions, which 
are the pearls, drop down to the bottom. 

Fhagm. LI. 

Phlegon. Mirab. 38. 

Of the Pandaian Land. 

(Cf. Fragm. XXX. 6.) 

MegasthenSs says that the women of the Pandaian 
realm bear children when they are six years of age. 


Fragm. L.O. 

Plln. Hist. Nat. VI. xxi. 4-5. 

Of the Ancient History of the Indians. 

For the Indians stand almost alone among tha 
nations in never having migrated from their own 
country. From the days of Father Bacchus to 
Alexander the Great their kings are reckoned at 
154, whose reigns extend over 6451 years and 
3 months. 

Solin. 52. 5. 
Father Bacchus was the first who invaded 
India, and was tho first of all who triumphed over 
the vanquished Indians. From him to Alexander 
the Groat 6451 years are reckoned with 3 months 
additional, the calculation boing made by counting 
the kings who reigned in the intermediate period, 
to the number of 153. 

Fhagm. XLV. 

An. VII. ii. 8-9.§ 

Of Kalanos and Mandania. 

This shows that Alexander, notwithstanding 

the terrible ascendancy which^the passion for 

glory had acquired over him, was not altogether 

without a perception of the things that are better ; 

for when he arrived at Taxila and saw the Indian 

§ This fragment is an extract from Arrian's Expedition 
of Alexander, and not his Indilca as stated (by an over- 
sight) at p. 107. The translation is accordingly now in- 

gymnosophists, a desire seized him to have one 
of these men brought into his presence, because 
he admired their endurance. The eldest of these 
sophists, with whom the others lived as disciples 
with a master, Dandamis by name, not only re- 
fused to go himself, but prevented the others 
going. He is said to have returned this for 
answer, that he also whs the son of Zeus as much 
as Alexander himself was, and that he wanted 
nothing that was Alexander's (for he was well 
off in his present circumstances), whereas he saw 
those who were with him wandering over so 
much sea and land for no good got by it, and 
without any end corning to their many wander- 
ings. He coveted, therefore, nothing Alexander 
had it in his power to give, nor, on the other 
hand, feared aught he' could do to coerce him : 
for if he lived, India would suffice for him, yield- 
ing him her fruits in due season, and if he died, 
he would be delivered from his ill-assorted com- 
panion the body. Alexander accordingly did 
not put forth his hand to violence, knowing the 
man to be of an independent spirit. He is said, 
however, to h";"o won over Kalanos, one of the 
sophists of that place, whom Megasthenes re- 
presents as a man utterly wanting in self-control, 
while the sophists themselves spoke opprobriously 
of Kalanos, because that, haying left the happiness 
enjoyed among them, he went to serve another 
master than God. 


Frarm. LII. 

^Elian, Hist. Atyim. XII. 8. 

0/ Elephants. 

(ConfjFragm. xxxvi. 10, xxxvii. 10.) 

The elephant when feeding at large ordinarily 
drinks water, but when undergoing tl*e fatigues 
of war is allowed wiue, — not that sort, however, 
which conies from the grape, but another which 
is prepared from rice.|| The attendants even go 
in advance of their elephants and gather them 
flowers ; for they arc very fond of sweet per- 
fumes, and they are accordingly taken out to the 
meadows, there to be trained under the influence 
of the sweetest fragrance. The animal selects the 
flowers according to their smell, and throws 
them as they are gathered into a basket which is 
held out by the trainer. This being filled, and 
harvest-work, so to speak, completed, he then 
bathes, and enjoys his bath with all the zest of a 
consummate voluptuary. On returning from bath- 
ing he is impatient to have his flowers, and if 
there is delay in bringing them fccjbegins roaring, 
and will not taste a morsel of food till all tbe 
flowers he gathered arc placed before him. This 
done, he takes the flowers out of the basket with 
his trunk and scatters them over the edge of his 

|| Called arak, (which, however, is also applied to t44») ; 
rum is now-a-days the beverage given it. 


manger, and makes by thia device th#ir fine scent 
be, as it were, a relish to his food. He strews 
also a good quantity of them as litter over his 
stall, for he loves to have his sleep made sweet 
and pleasant. 

The Indian elephants were nine cubits in height 
and five in breadth. The largest elephants in all 
the land were those called the Praisian, and next 
to these the Taxilan.^] 

Fragm. LIII. 

-aSlian, Hist. Alrim. III. 40. 
Of a White Elephant. 

(Cf. Fragm. xxxvi. 11, xxxvii. 11.) 

An Indian elephant-trainer fell in with a white 
elephant-calf, which he brought when still quite 
young to his home, where he reared it, and gra- 
dually made it quite tame and rode upon it. He 
became much attached to the creature, which 
loved him in return, and by its aifectinn requited 
him for its maintenance. Now the king of the 
Indians, having heard of this elephant, wanted to 
take it ; but the owner, jealous of the love it had 
for him, and grieving much, no doubt, to think 
that another should become its master, refused 
to give it away, and made off at once to the 

1f This fragment is ascribed to Mogasthenls both on 
account of the matter of it, and because it was undoubtedly 
from Megasthenes that iElian borrowed the narrative pre- 
ceding itTFragm. xuviii.) and that following it (Fragm. 
uxv.). — Schwanbeclt. 


desert mounted on his favourite. The king was 
enraged at this, and sent men in pursuit, with 
orders to seize the elephant, and at the same 
time to bring back the Indian for punishment. 
Overtaking the fugitive they attempted to exe- 
cute their purpose, but he resisted and attacked 
his assailants from the back of the elephant, 
which in the affray fought on the sjde of its 
injured master. Such was the state of matters at 
the first, bu J afterwards, when the Indian on being 
wounded slipped down to the ground, the ele- 
phant, true to his salt, bestrides him as soldiers 
in battle bestride a fallen comrade, whom they 
cover with their shields, kills many of the 
assailants, and puts the rest to flight. Then 
twining his trunk around his rearer he lifted 
him on to his back, and carried him home to the 
stall, and remained with him like a faithful friend 
with his friend, and showed him every kind atten- 
tion.* [0 men ! how base are ye ! ever dancing 
merrily when ye hear the music of the frying-pan, 
ever revelling in the banquet, but traitors in the 
hour of danger, and vainly and for nought sul- 
lying the sacred name of friendship.] 

* Compare tie account Riven in Plutarch's Life of 
Alexander , of the elephant of Pdros : — "This elephant during 
the whole battle gave extraordinary proofs of his sagacity 
and care of the long's person. As long as that prince was 
able to fight, he defended him with great courage, and re- 
pulsed all assailants ; and when he perceived him ready to 
sink under the multitudo of darts, and the wounds with 
which he was covered, to prevent his falling off he kneeled 
down in the softest manner, and with his proboscis gently 
drew every dart oat of his body." 


Fbagm. LIV. 

Pseudo-Origen, Philosoph, 24, od. Dolarue, Paris, 
1733, vol. I. p. 004. 

Of the Brdhmani and their Philosophy. 

(Cf. Fragra. xli., xliv., xlv.) 
Of the Braehhmans in India. 

There is among the Brachhmaiis in India a sect 
of philosophers who adopt an independent life, 
and abstain from animal food and nil victuals 
cooked by fire, being content to subsist upon 
fruits, which they do not so much as gather from 
the trees, but pick up when they have dropped to 
the ground, and their drink is the water of the river 
T a g a b e n a-t Throughout life they go about 
naked, saying that the body has been given by 
the Deity as a covering for the soul. J They hold 
that God is light, § but not such light as we see 

t Probably tho Sanskrit Tongavenfl, now the Tunga- 
bhadra, a large affluent of the Krishna. 

X Vide Ind.Ant,\<A. V.p. 128, notef. A doctrine of the 
VedAnta school of philosophy, according to -which the soul 
is incased as in a sheath, or rather a succession of sheaths. 
The first or inner case is the intellectual one, composed of 
the sheer and simple elements uncombined, and consisting 
of the intellect joipftjl with the live senses. The second is 
the mental sheath 1 , in which mind is joined with the pre- 
ceding, or, as somo hold, with the organs of action. The 
third comprises these organs and the vital faculties, and is 
called the organic or vital case. These three sheaths (fcoia) 
constitute the subtle frame which attends the soul in its 
transmigrations. The exterior case is composed of the coarse 
elements combined in certain proportions, and is called the 
gross body. Bee Colebrooke's Essay on. the Philosophy of 
the Hindus, Cowell's ed. pp. 395-6. 

§ Tho affinity between God and light is the burden of the 
Qayatri or holiest verse of the Veda. 


with the eye, nor such as the sun or fire, hut 
God is with them the Word, — by which term they 
do not mean articulate speech, but the discourse 
of*reason, whereby the hidden mysteries of know- 
ledge are discerned by the wise. This light, how- 
ever, which they call the Word, and think to be 
God, is, they say, known only by the Brachhmans 
themselves, because they alone have discarded 
vanity, |j which is the outermost covering of the 
soul. The members of this sect regard death 
with contemptuous indifference, and, as we have 
seen already, they always pronounce the name of 
the Deity with a tone of peculiar reverence, and 
adore him with hymns. They neither have wives 
nor beget children. Persons who desire to lead 
a life like theirs cross over from the other side of 
the river, and remain with them for good, never 
returning to their own country. These also are 
called Brachhmans, although they do not follow 
the same mode of life, for there are women in the 
country, from whom the native inhabitants are 
sprung, and of these women they beget off- 
spring. With regard to the Word, which they 
call God, they hold that it is .corpwaeal, and that 
it wears the body as its external covering, just as 

|| Kcva8o£ia , which probably translates ahanUra, literally 
' egotism,' and hence ' self-consciousness,' the peculiar and 
appropriate function of which is selfish conviction ; that is, a 
belief that in perception and meditation ' I' am concern- 
ed ; that the objects of sense concern Me — in short, that 
I AM. The knowledge, however, which conies from com- 
prehending that Being which has self -existence completely 
destroys the ignorance which says ' ram.' 


one wears the woollen snrcoat, 'and that when it 
divests itself of the body with which it is en- 
wrapped it becomes manifest to the eye. There 
is war, the Brachhntans hold, in the body wheYe- 
with they are clothed, and they regard the 
body as being the fruitful source of wars, and, as 
we have already shown, fight against it like soldiers 
in battle contending against the enemy. They 
maintain, moreover, that all men are held in bond- 
age, like prisoners of war,^[ to their own innate 
enemies, the sensual appetites, gluttony, anger, 
joy, grief, longing desire, and such like, while it 
is only the man who has triumphed over these 
enemies who goes to God. D a n d a m i s accord- 
ingly, to whom Alexander the Makedonian paid a 
visit, is spoken of by the Brachhmans as a god be- 
cause he conquered in the warfare against the 
body, and on the other hand they condemn K a 1 a- 
n o s as one who had impiously apostatized from 
their philosophy. The Brachhmans, therefore, 
when they have shuffled off the body, see the pure 
sunlight as fish see it when they spring up out of 
the water into the air. 


If Compare Plato, Vlmdo, cap. 32, whoro Sokratts 
speaks of the soul as at present confined in the body as in a 
spooiea of prison. This was a doctrine of tho Pythagore&ns, 
whose philosophy, oven in its most striking peculiarities, 
jcars such a close resemblance to tho Indian as greatly to 
uvonr the supposition that it was directly borrowed from 
t. There was oven a tradition (hat Pythagoras had risited 


Fragm. LV. 

Pallad. de Bragmanibus, pp. 8, 20 et seq. ed. Londin. 1068. 
(Camerar. libell. ijiiom^olog. pp. 116, 124 et aeq.) 

OJ Kalanos and Mandanis. 

(Cf. Fragm. xli. 19, xliv., xlv.) 

They (the Bragmancs) subsist upon such fruits 

as they can find, and on wild herbs, which the 

earth spontaneously produces, and drinlc only water. 

They wander about in the woody, aiul sleep at 

night on pallets of the leaves of trees. . . . 

"Kalanos, then, your false friend, held this 
opinion, but he is despised and trodden upon 
by us. By you, however, accomplice as he was 
in causing many evils to you all, he is honoured 
and worshipped, while from our society he has been 
contemptuously cast out as unprofitable. And why 
not ? when everything which we trample under 
foot is an object of admiration to the lucre-loving 
Kalanos, your worthless friend, but no friend of 
ours, — a miserable creature, and more to be pitied 
than the unhappiest wretch, for by setting his heart 
on lucre he wrought the perdition of his soul ! 
Hence he seemed neither worthy of us, nor worthy 
of the friendship of God, and hence he neither 
was content to revel away life in the woods beyond 
all reach of care, nor was he cheered with the 
hope of a blessed hereafter : for by his love of 
money he slew the very life of his miserable soul. 

" We have, however, amongst us a sage called 
D a n d a m i s, whose home is the woods, where he 


lies on a pallet of leaves, and where he has nigh 
at hand the fountain of peace, whereof he drinks, 
sucking, as it were, the pure breast of a mother." 

King Alexander, accordingly, when he heard 
of all this, was desirous of learning the doctrines 
of the sect, and so he sent for this Dandamis, 
as being their teacher and president 

Onesikjates was therefore despatched to fetch 
him, and when he fouud the great sage he said, 
" Hail to thee, thou teacher of thet Bragmanes. 
The sou of the mighty god Zens, king Alexander, 
who is the sovereign lord of all men, asks you 
to go to him, and if you comply, he will reward 
you with great aud splendid gifts, but if you 
Tefuse will cut off your head." 

Dandamis, with a complacent smile, heard him 
to the end, but did not so much as lift up his head 
from his couch of leaves, and while still retaining 
his recumbent attitude returned this scornful 
answer : — " God, the supreme king, is never the 
author of insolent wrong, but is the creator of light, 
of peace, of life, of water, of the body of man, and 
of souls, and these he receives when death sets them 
free, being in no way subject to evil desire. He 
alone is the god of my homage, who abhors slaughter 
and instigates no wars. But Alexander is not 
God, since he must taste of death ; and how can 
such as he be the world's master, who has not yet 
reached the further shore of the river Tibcroboas, 
and has not yet seated himself on a throne of 
universal dominion ? Moreover, Alexander has 


neither as yet entered living into Hades,* nor 
does he know the course of the sun through the 
central regions of the earth, while the nations on 
i$8 boundaries have not sp much as heard his 
name.f If his psesent dominions are not capacious 
enough for his desire, let him cross the Ganges 
river, and he will find a region able to sustain 
men if the country on our side be too narrow 
to hold him. Know this, however, that what 
Alexander •offers me, and the gifts he pro- 
mises, are all things to me utterly useless ; 
but the things which I prize, and find of real use 
and worth, are these leaves which arc my house, 
these blooming plants which supply me with 
dainty food, and the water which is my drink, 
while all other possessions and things, which 
are amassed with anxious care, are wont to prove 
ruinous to those who amass them, and cause only 
sorrow and vexation, with which every poor mor- 
tal is fully fraught. But as for me, I lie 
upon the forest leaves, and, having nothing which 
requires guarding, close my eyes in tranquil 
slumber ; whereas had I gold to guard, that 
would banish sleep. The ea/Jth supplies me 
with everything, even as a mother her child with 
milk. I go wherever I please, and there are no 

* (&v iv &8ov ovb(it<o rrapr)K6fv. The Latin version 
has now zanam Gademtransht, 'has not crossed the gone 
of Cadiz.' 

f The text here is so corrupt as to be almost untranslat- 
able. I have therefore rendered from the Latin, though not 
quite closely. 


cares with which I am forced to cumber myself, 
against my will. Should Alexauder cut off my 
head, he cannot also destroy my soul. My head 
alone, now silent, will remain, but the soul will 
go away to its Master, leaving the, body like a torn 
garment upon the earth, whence also it was taken. 
I then, becoming spirit, shall ascend to my God, 
who enclosed us in flesh, and left us upon the 
earth to prove whether when here below we shall 
live obedient to his ordinances, and who also will 
require of us, when we depart hence to his pre- 
sence, an account of our life, since he is judge of all 
proud wrong-doing ; for the groans of the oppress- 
ed become the punishments of the oppressors. 

" Let Alexander, then, terrify with these threats 
tbose who wish for gold and for wealth, and who 
dread death, for against us- these weapons arc both 
alike powerless, since the Bragmancs neither love 
gold nor fear death. Go, then, and tell Alexander 
this: 'Dandamis has no need of aught that is yours, 
and therefore will not go to you, but if you want 
anything from Dandamis come you to him.' "J 

Alexander, on receiving from Onesikratos a re- 
port of the interview, felt a stronger desire than 
ever to see Dandamis, who, though old and 
naked, was the only antagonist in whom he, the 
conqueror of many nations, had found more than 
his match, &c. 

X " Othors say Dandamis entered into no discourse with 
iho messengers, but only asked ' why Alexander had taken. 
su long a journey ?' " — Plutarch's Alexander. 


Fragm. LV. B. 

Ambrosias, Be Morihta Brachman omm, pp. 02, 08 et 
teq. ed. t'allad. Londin. 1668. 

• Of Calanus an&Mandanis. 

They (the Brackmans) eat what they find on the 
ground, such as leaves of trees and wild herbs, 
like cattle 

" C a 1 a n u s is yonr friend, but he h despised 
and trodden upon by us. He, then, who was the 
author of many evils among you, is honoured and 
worshipped by you ; but since lie is of no importance 
he is rejected by us, and those things we certainly do 
not seek, please Calanus because of his greediness 
for money. But ho was not ours, a man such as 
has miserably injured and lost his soul, on which 
account ho is plainly unworthy to bo a friend 
either of God or of ours, nor has he deserved 
security among the woods in this world, nor can he 
hope for thcglory which is promised in the future." 

When the emperor Alexander came to the 
forests, he was not able to sco D a u d a m i s as ho 
passed through. . . . 

When, therefore, the above-mentioned messenger 
camo to Dandamis, he addressed him thus : — " The 
emperor Alexander, the son of Jjhc great Jupiter, 
who is lord of the human race, ha*s ordered that 
you should hasten to him, for if you come, he will 
give you many gifts, but if you refuse he will be- 
head you as a punishment for your contempt." 
When those words came to the ears of Dandamis, 
ho rose not from his leaves whereon he lay, but re- 
clining and smiling he replied in this way : — " The 
greatest (Jod," he said, " can do injury to no one, but 


restores again the light of life to those who have 
departed. Accordingly he alone is my lord who 
forbids murder and excites no wars. But Alex- 
ander is no God, for he himself will have to die. 
How, thon, can he bo the lord of all, who has not 
yet crossed the rivor TyberotioaB, nor has 
made tho whole world his abode, n ir crossed the 
zone of G a d e s, nor has beheld the course of the 
sun in the centre of the world ? Therefore many 
nations do not yet even know his name. If, how- 
ever, the country he possesses cannot contain him, 
let him cross our river and he will find a soil 
which is able to support men. All those things 
Alexander promises would be ubcIcss to me 
if he gave them: I have loaves for a house, 
live on the herbs at hand and water to drink ; other 
things collected with labour, and which perish 
and yield nothing but sorrow to those seeking 
them or possessing tho rrt, — these I despise. I there- 
fore now rest secure, and with closed eyes I care 
for nothing. If I wish to keep gold, I destroy 
my sleep ; Earth supplies me with everything, as 
a mother does to her child. Wherever I wish to 
go, I proceed, and 'wherever 1 do not wish to be, 
no necessity of care can force me to go. And if he 
wish to cut off my head, he cannot take" my soul ; 
ho will only tak«jT the fallen head, but tho depart- 
ing soul will leave the head liko a portion of some 
garment, and will restoro it to whence it received 
it, namely, to the earth. But when I shall have 
become a spirit I shall ascend to God, who has 
enclosed it within this flesh. When he did this 
he wished to try us, how, after leaving him, we 
would live in this world. And afterwards, when 


we shall have returned to him, he will demand 
from us an account of this life. Standing by him 
.1 shall see my injury, and shall coutcmplate his 
judgment on those who injured me : for the sighs 
arid groans of the injured bectomc the punishments 
of the oppressors^ 

" Let Alexander threaten with this them thai 
desire riches or fear death, both of which I de- 
spise. For Brachmans neither lore gold nor dread 
death. Go, therefore, and tell Alexander this : — 
' Dandamis geeks nothing of yours, but if you think 
yon need something of his, disdain not to go to 

When Alexander heard these words through 
the interpreter, he wished the more to sec such 
a man, since he, who had subdued many nations, 
was overcome by an old naked man, &c. 

Fragm. LVI. 

Hiii. Mat. Sat. VI. 21. 8—23. 11. 
List of the Indian Races. § 
The other journeys made thence (from the 
Hypha&is) for Sclcukos Nikator are as follows : — 
168 miles to the Ilesidrus, and to the river 
Jomanes as* many (some copiers, add 5 miles) ; 
from thence to the Ganges 112 miles. 119 miles 
1o Rhodopha (others give 325 miles for this dis- 
tance). TothetownKalinipaxalfi/ — 500. Others 
give 265 mites. Thence to the confluence of the 
Jomancs and Ganges 625 miles (many add ].'t 

§ This hit Pliny has borrowed for the most part from 
Megaathenfo. Cf. Schwanbeck, pp. 16 seq., 57 s>eq. 

J 30 

miles), and to the town Palimbothra 425. To 
the mouth of the Granges 738 miles. || 

|| According to the MSS. 638 or 037 miles. The place* 
mentioned in this famoust>ilincrary all lay on the Roy..l 
Road, which ran from tho Indus to Palibolhra. They 
have been thus identified. The Hesidras is now tho Satlcj, 
and the point of departure "lay immediately below its 
junction with the Hynhasis (now tho liitw). Tho direct 
route thence (vi& fiudhianft, Sirhiud, and Ambilla) conducted 
the traveller to tho ferry of the Jomanes, now the Jamuil, 
in tho neighbourhood of tho prevent liureah, whence tho 
road led to tho Ganges at a point which, to judge from the 
distance given (112 miles), must have been nqir the site of 
tho far-famed Hastinapura. Tho next stage to be reached 
wad Ithodopha, tho position of which, both its name and its 
distance from the Ganges (119 miles) combine to fix at 
J)ahhai, a small tov/n about 12 miles to tho south of 
Anupshahr. Kalinipaxa, tho next stage, Wanner I, and 
Lassen would identify with Kanauj (tho Kanyaknbja of 
•Sanskrit) j but M. do St.-Martiu, objecting to this that 
Pliny was not likely to have designated so important and no 
celebrated a city by so obscure an appellation, finds a site 
for it in the neighbourhood on the banks of the Iksbumati, 
a river of PanvhAla mentioned in the great Indian poems. 
This river, ho remarks, must, also tiavo been called tin; 
Kalinadi, as the names of it still in current use, Kalini and 
Kalindri, prove. Now, as 'paxa' transliterates the Sanskrit 
' pakshit,' a side, Kalinipaxa, to judge from its name, must 
designate a town lying near the Kalinadi. 

The figures which represent the distances havo given vise 
to much dispute, somo of thorn being inconsistent either 
with others, or with' the real distances. The text, accord- 
ingly, has generally boon supposed to be corrupt, so far at 
least as tho figures arc concerned. M. do St.- Mart in, 
however, accepting the figures nearly as they, stand, shows 
them to be fairly "pfijrcct. Tho first difficulty presents it- 
self in tho words,' H Others give 335 miles for this distance." 
By ' this distance' cannot be meant tho distanco between 
the Ganges and Rhodophn, but between the Uesidrus and 
Rhodopha, which the addition of the figures shows to be 
399 miles. The shorter estimate of others (325 miles) 
measures the length of a more direct route by way of 
Patiala, Thancsvara, Panipat, and Dehli. The next diffi- 
culty has probably been occasioned by a corruption of 
tho text. It lies in the words "Ad Calinipaxa oppiduni 
ULXVII. D. Alii COLXV. mill." Tho numeral D has 
generally been taken to mean 500 paces, or half a Roman 
mile, making the translation run thus : — " To Kalinipaxa 


The races which we may enumerate without 
being tedious, from the chain of EmoJus, of which 

K!7i miles. Others give 265 miles." But M. do Rt.-Mnrtiu 
prefers to think tliat the D has, by Rome mangling of the 
»<?xt, been detached from the 4)cginuiiig of the second 
number, with whicli it formed the number DLXV., and 
boon appended to the first, being led to this conclusion on 
finding that the number 5fif» stuns np_ almost'- to a nicety the 
distance from tho llesidrus to Kalinipaxa, as thus : — 

From tho ll'esidms to the Jomanes 1CS miles. 

From the Jomanes to the Ganges 112 „ 

From the Ganges to Rhodopha 119 „ 

From Rhodopha to Kalinipaxa 1C7 „ 


Total... 5CG miles. 
Hiny's carelessness iu confounding total with partial dis- 
tances has created the next difficulty, which lies in his stat- 
ing that the distance from Kalinipaxa to the confluence of 
the Jomanes and the Ganges is o'2li miles, while in reality 
it is only about 227- Tho figures may bo corrupt, but it is 
much more probable that they represent the distance of 
.Nome stage ou the route remoter from the confluence of the 
rivers than Kalinipaxa. This must have boon the passage 
of the Jomanes, for the distance — 

From the Jomanes to the Ganges is ... 112 miles. 

Thence to Rhodopha lit) „ 

Thonco to Kalinipaxa 107 „ 

Thence to the confluence of the mors. 227 „ 

Total... 625 miles. 
This is exactly equal to 5000 stadia, the length of the 
Indian Mesopotamia or PoAb, tho PauehAIa of Sanskrit 
geography, and the Antarveda of lexicographers. 

The foregoing conclusions M. de St. -Martin had summed 

up in the table annexed :— Roman miles. Stadia. 

From the Hesidrus to the Jomanes^ 108 1SW 

From the Jomanes to the Ganges... »112 89fi 

Thence to Rbodopba '. 119 952 

From the Hesidrus to Rhodopha by 

a more direct route 3*25 2G00 

From Rhodopha to Kalinipaxa 107 133C 

Total distance from the Hesidrus to 

Kalinipaxa SOli 4520 

. From Kalinipaxa to the confluence 

of the Jomanes and Ganges (227) (1810) 

Total distance from the passage of 
the Jomanes in its confluence 
with the Ganges 025 5000 


a spur is culled I in a u s (meaning in the native 
language smwi/),*\\ are the I a a r i, V o s y r i, 
I £ g i, and on the hills the C h i s i o t o s a g i, * and 

Pliny assigns 425 miles as the distance from the con- 
fluence of tho rivers to Pulibotbra, but, as it is in reality 
ouly 248, the figures have probably boen.altercd. He gives, 
lastly, 638 miles as the distance from 'Palibothra to the 
mouth of the Ganges, which agrees closely witb the esti- 
mate of Megasthencs, who makes it 5000 Btadia— if that 
indeed was bis estimate, aad not 6000 stadia as Strabo in 
one passage alleges it was. The distance by land from 
PAtna to Tuniluk (Tsmralipta, tho old portiof the Ganges' 
mouth) is 445 English or 480 Roman miles. The distance 
by the river, which is sinuous, is of course much greater. 
See E'tvde sur le Q/hgrwpMe Orecqve et Latine de I'lndt, 
par P. V. do Saint-Martin, pp. 271-278. 

*H By Emodus was generally designated that part of the 
Himalayan range which extended along Nepal and Bhutan 
and onward toward the ocean. Other forms of the name 
are Emoda, Emodon, tfemodes. Lassen derives the word 
frotnthe Sauskrit huimamta, iu Prakrit haitndta, 'snowy.' 
If this be so, Hemodus is tho more correct form. Another 
derivation refers the word to ' HcWidri* {hetmi, 'gold,' 
and adri, ' mountain'), tte ' golden mountain*,' — so called 
either because they wore thought to contain gold mines, or 
because of the aspect they presented when their snowy 
peaks reflected the goldeu elfulgenco of sunset. Imuus 
represents the Sanskrit hivuwata, 'snowy.' The name was* 
appliud at first by the Greeks to the Hindu Kush and 
the Himalayas, but was iu course of time transferred to the 
Bolor range. This chain, which runs north and south, was 
regarded by tho ancients as dividing Northern Asia into 
' Skythia iutra Imaura' and ' Skythia extra Imauni,' and 
it has forraod for ages tho boundary bctwran China and 
TurkestAn. • -r 

* These four tabes were located somowhero in Kaanifr 
or its immediate neighbourhood. Tho Isari are unknown, 
but arc probably the same as the Brysari previously men- 
tioned by Pliny. Tho Cosyri are easily to be identified 
with tho Khastra mentioned in the Mahilbh&rata as neigh- 
bours of the Daradas and Kaamlras. Their name, it has 
been conjectured, survives in Kh&char, one of the three great 
divisions of the K&thls of Gujar£t,'who appear to have come 
originally from the Pan jab. Tho Izgi are mentioned in 
Ptolemy, under the name of the Sizyges, as a people of 
Serike. This is, howover, a mistake, as they inhabited tho 
alpine region whjch extends above Kosmlr towards the 

the Brae li m u n ye, a name comprising many 
tribes, among which are the M a c e o c a 1 i n g ae.f 

north and north-west. The CluHiotosagi or Ghirutosagi 
are perhaps identical with the CJiiconn? (whom Fliuy else- 
where mentions), iu spite of the addition .to their name of 
' sagi,' which may havo merely iudicated them to be a branch 
of the Sakas, — th|t id, the SXythians,— by whom India was 

overrun before the time of its conquest by the Aryans. They 
are mentioned in Mauu X. 44 together with the raundrakas, 
Odras, Drftaidos, Kdmboj&s, Yavanas, Paradox, Pahlavas, 
Chinas, Klratos, Daradas, and Khasas. J f Chirotosagi he 
the right reading of their uaiue, there can be little doubt 
of their identity with the KTratos.— See P. V. de St.- 
Martin's work already quoted, pp. 195-107. But for the 
KhAchars, see Lid. Ant. vol. IV. p. 323. 

f v. 1. Bracmanse. Pliny at once transports his rcadcra 
from the mountains of Kosniir to the lower part of the valley 
of the Ganges. Here he places the Bracbinanue, whom he 
takes to be, not what they actually were, the leading caste 
of the population, but a powerful race composed of many 
tribes — the Maccoc&liiigse beiug of the number. This 1 ribe, 
as well as the Gaiigariduo-KaliugBa, and the Madogaliugai 
afterwards mentioned, are subdivisions of the Kaliuga*, 
a widely diffused race, which spread at one time from the 
delta of tho Ganges all along the eastern coast of the pe- 
ninsula, though afterwards they did not extend southward 
beyond Orissa. Iu the Mah&bh&rata they are mentioned 
as occupying, along with tho Vangas (from whom Bengal is 
named) and three other leading tribes, the region which 
lies between Magadha and the sea. The Maccocalingra, 
then, are the Magha of the Kalingaj. " Magha," says M. do 
St.-Martin, " is the name of one of the non- Aryan tribes 
of greatest importance and widest diffusion in the lower 
Gangetic region, where it is broken up into several special 
groups extending from Arakan and Western Asam, where 
it is tound under the name of Sfogh (An^iicii Mugs), as far 
as to the M&ghars of the central' valleys of Neufll, to the 
Maghayas, Magahis, or Maghyas of Southern Bahar (the 
ancient Magadha), to the ancient Magra of Bengal, and to 
tho Magora of Orissa. These lost, by their position, may 
properly be taken to represent our MaccocalingoB." " The 
Modogalingee," continues tho same author, " tiud equally 
their representatives in tho ancient Mada, a colony which 
the Book of Mauu mentions in his enumeration of the im- 
pure tribes of Ary&varta, and which he names by the side 
of the Andhra, another neople of the lower Ganges. The 
Monghyr inscription, which belongs to, the earlier part of 


The river P r i n a sf and the n i n;i s (which flows 
into the (jnnges) are both navigable. § The tribes 
called C a 1 i u g ;e are nearest the sea, and higher 
up arc the M iiinlc i, ami the M n 1 I i in who** 1 

the 8tb century of onr era, alro names tbc Metla. us a low 
tribe of this region {An. lie*, vol. I. p. 12S, Calcutta. 17*1), 

and, what is remarkable, their »:inie is Found joi 1 to tliut 

of tin 1 Andhr.i (Astdharaka), precisely as in the text of Ma- 
nn. I'liny assigns for tli»ir habitnti-m a. largo, island of 
the Gaugps; ami the word Galiugn (for Kalinjja), to which 
their name is attached, necessarily places this island to- 
wards the sea-board — perhaps in the Delta." ° 

Tlie Gangnridu.' or Gungaridcs occupied the region cor- 
responding roughly with that now called Lower Ucugul, 
and consisted of various indigenous tribes, which in the 
course of time became more or less Aryanii:cd. As no « ord 
is Found in Sanskrit to which their name corresponds, it has 
boon supposed of CI reck invention (Lassen, Ind. Alt. vol. If. 
p. 201), but crroueously, for it must have been current at 
the ptsriod of the Make (Ionian invasion: since Alexander, 
in reply to inquiries regarding the sonth country, was 
informed that the region of the Ganges was inhabited by 
two principal nations, the J'rasii and the Gangartda*. M. 
d«; St.- Martin thinks that their name has been preserved 
almost identically in that of the (ionghris of Sonth Bahnr, 
whose traditions refer their origin to Tirbut ; and he would 
identify their royal city I'atthaHs (or I'ort-alis) with Vard- 
il liana (contraction of Varddhanulna), row Uardwun. 
Others, however, place it, as has been elsewhere stated, on the 
MahAnndt. In Ptolemy their capital is Gauge, which must 
have been situated near where Calcutta now stands. The 
Oangarides aro mentioned by Virgil, Gcorg. III. 37 :— 
Iu foribus pugnam ex auro solidoque clcpiianto 
Gangaridu.ru. fa.3vj.rn, victoriscpie anna Quirini. 
" High o'er tho gate in elephant and gold 
The crowd shall Crasar'B Indian war behold." 

(Dryden'B translation.) 

X v. 1. Pumas. The Prinas is probably the Tamas/l or 
Tonsa, which in the PurAnas is called the ParnAsfl. The 
Cainas, notwithstanding the objections of Scbwanbeek, 
must be identified with the Cane, which is a tributary of 
thn Jamnft. 

§ Porthe identification of these and other affluents of the 
Ganges see Notes on Annan, c iv., Ind. Ant. vol. V. 
p. ML 


rountrv is Mount AI a 1 1 u a, the boundary of ;ill 
thai district being the Gang e s. 

(22.) This river, according to some, rises from 
lAiccrtaiu sources, like the «Nile,|| and inundates 
similarly the countries lying along its course ; 
others say that it rises ori'the Skythian mountains, 
and has nineteen tributaries, of which, besides 
those already mentioned, the C o n d o«e h a t e s, 
E r a n nobo a s,^| o s o a g u s, and Sonus are 
navigable. Others again assert that it issues forth 
at once with loud roar from its fountain, and 
after tumbling down a steep and rocky channel is 
received immediately on» reaching the level plains 
into a lake, whence it flows out with a gentle 
current, being at the narrowest eight miles, and 
on the average a hundred stadia, iu breadth, and 
never of less depth than twenty paces (one hun- 
dred feet) in the final part of its course, which is 
through the country of the G a n g a r i d e s. The 
royal* city of the C a I i u g a: is called P a r- 
t h a 1 i s. Over their king (50,000 foot-soldiers, 

|| For an account of the different thorn-ion regarding the 
sourue of the i'limgca sec Smith's Did. nf CUms. (remj. 

Tf Cawlocluitem, Emmtwhaam. — v.*l. JDanucham (Va- 
mam), Mrranoboan. 

* reyin. — v. 1. regit). The common reading, however— 
" Gangaridum Calingarum. itegin," iVc, makes this (!an- 
garides a branch of the Kalingic. This is pmbuhly the cor- 
rect reading, for, as General Cunningham states (/hie. Uumj. 
oflivL pp. 518-519), certain inscriptions speak of 'Tri-Ka- 
li.ngii,' or ' the Three Kalingas.' " The name of Tri-Ka- 
linga," he adds, " is probably old, as Pliny mentions the 
Maeen-CaUiigai and the UangnrMlet-Oiiliinjir as separate 
peoples from the Calingffi, while Ihe Hah'tbh'lniln names 
the Kalingas three separate times, and each time in eon* 

lOOOf horsemen, 700 elephants keep watch and 
ward in " procinct of war." 

For among the more civilized Indian com- 
munities life is spent in a great variety of separate 
occupations. Some till the nsoil, some are 
soldiers, some traders ; «*the noblest and richest 
take part in the direction of state affairs, adminis- 
ter justice., and sit in council with the kings. A 
fifth class devotes itself to the philosophy pre- 
valent in the country, which almost assumes the 
form of a religion, and the members always put 
an end to their life by a voluntary death on a 
burning funeral pile.J In addition to these 
classes there is one half-wild, which is constantly 
engaged in a task of immense labour, beyond the 
power of words to describe — that of hunting and 

junction with different peoples." (II. II. Wilson in Vishm 
I'unhut, M ed. pp.185, IS? note, and 188.) Ah Tri-Kalinga 
thus corresponds with the great province ofTding&na, it. 
yeems probable that the name of TelingAna may be only a 
slightly contracted form of Tri-KalingAna, or ' the Three 

t LX.miU.—y. 1. LXX. mill. 

j Lucian, in his satirical piece on the death of Pcregrinos 
(cap. 25), refers to this practice : — " But what is the motive 
whieh prompts this man (Perogrinos) to fling himself into 
the flames ? God IhKiwk it is simply that he may show oft' 
how he can endure pain as do the Brachmans, to whom it 
pleased Theagencs to liken him, just as if India had not 
her own crop of fools and vain-glorious persons. But let 
him by all means imitate the Brachmans, for, as Onesi- 
kritoa informs ns, who was the pilot of Alexander's fleet 
and saw Kalanos burned, they do not immolate themselves 
by leaping into tho flames, but when tho pyre is made 
they stand close beside it perfectly motionless, and suffer 
themselves to bo gently broiled ; then decorously ascend- 
ing the pile they are bnmod to death, and never swerve, 
even ever so little, from their recumbent position." 


taming elephants. They employ these animals 
in ploughing nud for riding on, and regard them 
as forming tic main part of their stock in cattle. 
Tiicy employ them in war and in fighting 
for their country. In choosing them for war, 
regard is had t^ their age", strength; and size. 

There is a very largo island in the Ganges 
which is inhabited by a single tribe called Mo do- 
g a I i n g a;.§ Heyoud are situated the Mo d ub fie, 
M o 1 i n d a£ the Ub c r tc with a handsome town 
of the same name, the G a 1 m o d r o e s i, 1' r c t i, 
(' u 1 i s s :e,|| S a s u r i, Pa s s a 1 »\ C o 1 u b ic, 
O r x ii 1 in:, A b a 1 i, T a 1 u c t ro.f The king of 

§ vv. II. niudu Ooiliutfam, .Modogalicnm. 

|| Culinfu: — v. 1. Aclissiij. 

% These tribes were rhieJIy located in tho regions between 
the left bank of Die (liinges and the Him&luyns. Of (bo 
(iuhuodroi ! si, l'reli, (Jalis«i,', Susuri, mid Oncultc nothing 
is known, nor can their mimes bo identified with any to 
bo found in Sanskrit literature. The Morinbiu represent 
beyond doubt the -Sloutilia, a people mentioned in the 
AitiirCija VfOJun a iM along with other non-Aryan tribes 
which occupied the country north of ilio (hinges at tho 
til no when the Brfdimans established their first settlements 
in theeountry. The Mulimlio lire mentioned as the Maladain 
the Purflnic lists, but no furl her trace of them is met with. 
Tho Uberte must Ijo referred to the Dliarx, a numerous 
racu spread ovl'i" the central districts of tho region spoken 
of, and extending as fur an to Assanft 'JJlie name is pro- 
nounced differently in different ■ districts, and variously 
written, as Jiors or Bhors, Bhowri», Barriias ajid Lihlirhiyas, 
Biii'eyas, Buoris, Bharuis, &<•. The race, tlmiijjh formerly 
powerful, is now otic of the iowi-t-t eli-.-i-iuf the population. 
The J'assaliJO are identified as the inhabitants of l'auchida, 
which, as already stated, was tho old name of the Bofib. 
The Colubaj nvpond to the KAuluta or Koluta— men- 
tioned in the 4th book of tho U hiiiyuni, in the emimera. 
tionofthe races of tho west, also in tho Var&ha baiihilA 
in the li.-.t 'of tho people of tho north-west, and in tho 
Indian drama called the Mv.dva Kdfrshcwo, of which tha 
hero is the well-known Chandragupta* They were set» 


these keeps under arms 50,000 foot-soldierS/lOOO* 
cavalry, and 400 elephants. Next come the 
Andara:,t a still more powerful race, which 
possesses numerous v ; Jlages, and thirty towns de- 
fended by walls and towers, and which supplies 
its king with an army df 100,000. infantry, 2000 
cavalry, and 1000 elephants. Gold is very 
abundanUamong the D a r d oc, and silver among 
the Set se. J 

tied not far from tho Upper JamnA. Abont the middle 
of tin 1 7th century tlioy were visited by the famous Chinese, 
traveller lliwen-Thsftng, who writes (heir name as Kiu- 
lu-to. Yule, however, places tho Phwaliu in the south-west 
of Til-hut, and the Kolubie on tho Komlui'liutoa (tlamlaLi) 
in tho north-east of tiorakhpuv and iinytb-west of Saran. 
Tho Abali answer perhaps to the Gvnllas or ITalva'is 
of South Hah fir and of the hills which covered the 
(southern parts of tho ancient Miurmllia. The 'I'ulncttu 
are the people of the kingdum of TAmralipta mentioned 
in the Alali&bhfmila. hi tho writings of the Uiiiltlliist.rf of 
Ceylon the nanto appears as Tamalitli, corresponding to 
the Tamluk of the present day. Between these two forms 
of the uamo that given by Pliny is evidentl v the connect- 
ing link. Tamluk lies to the south-west of Calcutta, from 
wliieh it is distant in a direct lino about 35 miles. It was 
in old times the main emporium of the trade carried on 
between (jaugotic India and Ceylon. 

* IV. M— v.l.'IU.M. 

t Tho Andarai are readily identified with tho Andhra of 
Sanskrit — a great and powerful nation settled originally in 
• the Dekhan )>otween the middle part of the courses of the 
ClodAvart and the "Krishna rivers, hut which, before the 
time of Megast'nenes, had spread their sway towards tho 
north as far as tho upper course of tho NarmadA (Ner- 
lmdda), and, as has been already indicated, the lower 
districts of tho Oangetic basin. Vide hid. Avt.wl. V. 
p. 170. For a notL-a of Andhra (the modern TelingAna) seo 
General Canningham's Anc. Qemj. of Trtd. pp. 527-530. 

J I'liny here reverts to where he started from in his enu- 
meration of the tribes. The Soke uro tho Sata or SAtaka 
of Sanskrit geograi>hy, which locates them in iho neighbour- 
hood of tho Daradas, [According to Yule, however, they 
are th*< Sanskrit Sekas, and he places them on tbe Banas 
about J ha j pur, aoMth-eaist from Ajmir.- Ei>. liui. Ant-] 


But the P r a s i i surpass in power and glory 
every other people, not only in this quarter, but 
one may say in all India, their capital being 
IVa 1 i b o t h r a, a very large and wealthy city, 
after which some»call the people itself the P a 1 i- 
b o t h r i, — naji even the* whole tract along the 
Ganges. Their king has in his pay a standing 
army of 600,000 foot-soldiers, 30,000 cavalry, 
and 9000 elephants : whence may be formed some 
conjecture aS to the vastness of his resources. 

After these, but more inland, arc the Monc d c s 
and S u a r i,§ in whose country is Mount Ma 1 c us, 
on which shadows fall towards the north in winter, 
and towards the south in summer, for six months 
alternately. || Bacton asserts that the north 
pole in these parts is seen but once in the year, 
and only for fifteen days ; while Megasthcncs says 
that the same thing happens in many parts of 
India. The south pole is called by the Indians 
D r am asa. The river J o m a n c s flows through 
the Palibothri into the Ganges between the 
towns M e t h o r a andC a r i s o b o r a.^[ In the 

§ The Monldcs or Mandei aro placed by Yulo about 
GniiKpnr, on the upper watera of tbo Brftiniant, S.VV. «>f 
Chhutia Nsigpur. Lassen places tbom S. of the Mahftnadi 
about Sonpur, where Yulo has the Suari or Sahara 1 , tbo 
Savara of Sanskrit authors, which Lassen places between 
Sonpur and SiiiKlibhum. See Ind. Ant. vol. VI. noto §, 
p. 127— Eu. hid. Ant. 

|| Thin, of course, can only occur at tbo equator, from 
which the southern extremity of India is about 500 miles 

■J Palibothri must denote here the subjects of the realm 
of which Palibothra was the capital, and not merely the 
inhabitants of that city, as Rennet and others supposed, 


parts which lie southward from the Ganges the in • 
habitants, already swarthy, are deeply coloured 
by the sun, though not scorched black like the 
Ethiopians. The never they approach the Indus 
the more plainly docs their complexion betray 
the influence of the sun. 

The Indus skirts the frontiers of the Prasii, 
whose mountain tracts arc said to be inhabited by 
the Pygmies.* Artcinidornst sets down the 
distance between the two rivers at lil miles. 

(23.) The Indus, called by the inhabitants 
S i n d u s, rising on that spur of Mount Caucasus 
which is called P a r o p a m isus, from sources 

and bo fixed its pile at the confluence of tlio fiances and 
Janiunfi. Mi'tliora in cnaily identified will) Alatbura. 
Caxisubora is read otherwise ns Clu-jsolion, Cvrisoboroa, 
Cleisoboras. " This city," says General Cunningham, "has 
not. yet been identified, but I feci satisfied that it must be 
V-tiudSvtnit, Hi miles to the north of MatlmrA. IV/ndd- 
vana means 'the grnvo of the basil-trees,' which is 
famed all over India as the acor.o of Krishna's spurts with 
the milkmaids. But the earlier wwi" of tlie place was 
K&likavitrtltt, pr ' Kulika's whirlpool.' . . . Now 
the Latin name of CJisobora i>; also writ (en Ctifif'bora 
and Cyritsoborka in different TMSS., from which I infer 
that the original spelling was KulisuburLu, or, by a slight 
change of two letters, Ktdihoborta or K'dil;t%liarta,." 
A n c. Geog. of Intl. r. p 375. { <JJfn>ub'V«— vv. 1 ]]. Cbrysoban, 
Cyrisoborca. This is the Kleisobora of Arrian (ante, vol. 
V. p. #0), which Yule, places at Batesar, and Lassen at 
Agra, which ho makes the Sanskrit KTishnapnra. Wilkins 
{Ait. Res. vol. V. p. 270) says Clisobora is now called 
" Mugti-Nagar by the Musuhnans, and K a 1 i s a n u r a by 
the Ilindns." Vide hid. Ant. vol. VI. p. 249, note J.— Id. 
Jnd. Avt.'\ 

* Vide Ind. Ant. vol. VI. p. 133, note t— Ed. huh Ant. 

t A Greek geographer of Epbcsus, whose date is about 
100 B.C. Ilis valuable work on geography, called a Peru 
$1$!, was much quoted by the ancient writers, but with 
the exception of some fragments is now lost. 


fronting the sunrise, J receives also itself nineteen 
rivers, of which the most famous are the JI y d a s- 
p e s, which has four tributaries ; the C a n t a- 
\» r a,§ which has three ; the A c c s i n e s and the 
II y p a s i s, which arc both navigable ; but never- 
thelcss, having no very^rcat supply of water, it 
is nowhere broader than fifty stadia, or deeper 
than fifteen paces, |] It forms an extremely 
large island, which is called P r a s i a n e, and a 
smaller om«, called P a t a 1 e.^j Its stream, which 
is navigable, by the lowest estimates, for 12 JO 
miles, turns westward as if following more or less 
closely the course of the sun, and then falls into 
the ocean. The measure of the coast line from 
the mouth of the Ganges to this river I shall set 
down as it is generally given, though none of 
the computations agree with each other. From 
the mouth of the Ganges to Cape C a 1 i n g o n 
and the town of Daudagnla* 625 miles ;t 

X The real snnrcos u? thn Indus wcro unknown to the 
Greeks. T ho priueipal stream rises to the north of the 
Kailtisa mountain (which figures in Hindu mythology as tho 
mansion of tins gods and (Siva's paradise) iu lut. 32°, long. 
81° 30', at »ii elevation of about 20,01)0 feel. 

§ Tho Chaudrabhfiga or Akesine%now the CheniVb. 

|| For remarks on the tributaries of tJfb Jndiis see Notes 
on Arrian, chap, iv.,— Ind. Ant. vol. V. i>p. 331-333. 

f See Ind. Ant vol. V. p. 330. Yule identities the 
former of theso with the area enclosed by the Nam from 
abovo Rohri to IlaidariibAd, and the delta of tho Indus.— 
Kb. Ind. Ant. 

* v.l. Pandaguda. Cape Kalingon is identified by Yule 
as Point Godftvart.— Ed. Ind. Ant. 

t " Both the distance and the name point, to tho great 
port town of Coring?, as the promontory of Coringon, 
which is situated on a projecting point of land at the 


to Tropin a 122,"» ;J to the cape of Peri 
m u I a,§ where there is the greatest emporium of 
trade in India, 750 miles; to the town in the 
island of P a t a 1 a mentioned above, 620 miles. 

The hill-tribes between the Indus and the 
lomancs arc the C c e i ; the C c t r i b o n i, 
who live in the woods ; then the M e g a 1 1 k, 
whose king is master of five hundred elephants 
and an army of horse and foot of unknown 
strength ; the C h r y s e i, the P a r a s a n g a\ 
and the A sang se,|| where tigers abound, noted 
for their ferocity. The force under arms con- 
sists of .30,000 foot, 300 elephants, and 800 
horse. These are shut in by the Indus, and arc 
surrounded by a circle of mountains and deserts 

month of tho GuiLlviiri river. The town of Damlinjiiiln 
or ])tuitlntjiil<i I take to bo the IhWapura of tho Bnddhixt. 
til ron ideo, which as tlio capital of K:i]iiiL*:i may with iiuieli 
probability lie identilied with lliija Mali.inlri, which its 
only 30 miles to the mirth-rout of Curiuga. From this 
great similarity of tho Grei'k V am 1 II, I think it not 
improbable that tlio Greek namo may have been Ihnnln- 
piila, which is' almost this same as D&ntapun'K Hut in (his 
ca-se tho Jl&utn- or ' tooth-relic' of Buddha must have 
bfien enshrined in Kalinga a.s early as tho time of Pliny, 
which is confirmed by this statement of tho Buddhist 
chronicles tluit tlio 'left cauine tooth' of Puddlta was 
brought to Kaliuga inviiodiatcly after his death, where it 
was enshrined by the reigniug sovereign, Brahmadatta." — 
Cunningham, Qoo'j. p. 518. 

J [Tropina answers to Tripontari or Tirnpanatora, 
opposite Kochin. — En. Tnd.Ant. - ] The distance given is 
measured from the month of the (hinges, and not from Cape 

8 This eape is a projecting point of the island of Peri- 
mula or Perimuda, now called the island of Salsette, near 

|| v. 1. Asmagi. The Asangse, as placed doubtfully by 
Lsuwen about .lodhpnv. — Ed. Jnd.Ant. 


over a space of 625 niiles.^f Jiclow the desert.* 
arc the D a r i, the S u r a>, then deserts again 
lor 187 miles,* these deserts encircling the fertile 
ttyiets just as the sea encircles islands.f Below 
(hese ilescrts ye find the Maltceorn?, 
S i n g h hj, M a r o h ec, R a r n n g ue, Moru n i. J 
These inhabit the hills which in an unbroken 

T VOXXV.—v. 1. DCXXXV. Plijiy, having tftven a 
general account of the basins of tlio Indus and the 
(liiuguti, proc&?ds to cnumointo hero the trilies which 
peopled the north of .India. Tim nnmcri aro obscure, 
but Lassen hud idontilied one or two of them, and do 
.Saint-Martin a considerable number more. Tbo tril>os 
first mentioned in the list occupied tbo country extending 
from the Jiuuuiia to tbo western coast about the mouth of 
the Nnrmadu. The Oesi probably answer to the Khosas 
or Kl\!isy:ia, a great 1 ribe. which from time, immemorial 
Ii:ih led a wiiiiderin.tr life be! ween (iiijiirat, l.be lower Indus, 
and the Jamuuft. Tbo imine of 1 be Cotviboni would went 
to be a transcript of Kctrivani (for Kshalrivarieyu)' 'I'hey 
may therefore have been a branch of tbo Kshatri (Kli.'itri), 
one of the impure tribes of (be list of jMuiiil (I. x. 12). 
The Me^allii) must be identified with the ^Itivela.s of 
Sanskrit bunks, » great tribe described as Mottled l«i the 
west of the .fiiiiiiuiii. The Ghrysoi probably correspond lo 
the Kuroiicha of the Vurfniin lists (I'i.-tltiin t'ur. pp. 177, 
lN<i, note IS, and SSI, &t\). The locality occupied by these, 
and the two tribes mentioned alter them must have lain to 
the north of the llai.i, between the lower In J us and the 
chain of the Aravali mountains. 

* CLXXXlfU.—v. 1. CLXXXVII1. 

i Tbo Dbara inhabit wtill the batik* of this lower (ihara 
and tbo parti cunt unions to the valley of tfle Indus. Iliwen 
Thsain» mentions, however, a land of Para at the lower end 
of the K"lf of Kaehb, in a position which quite accords with 
that which Pliny assigns to them. The Sura.', Kunsl,-. Sura, 
have their name preserved in " •Snur," which designates a 
Iribo settled along the Lower Indus— the modern repre- 
sentatives of the Haunibbtra of the Jlarhmii *». They are 
placed with donbt by Lassen on tlie. lion? about Sindri, 
but Yule places the Koliiijf.i!— Sanskrit, lihaulinKas — 
there.— Kn. W. Aitl. 

t Mormii, &.C.-V. 1. MoniuU", Mii.'iU" rii^uii^ie, Lalii. 


chain run parallel to the shores of the ocean. 
They are free and have no kings, anil occupy the 
mountain heights, whereon they have built many 
vitics. § Next follow the N a r c n\ enclosed I>y 
the loftiest of Indian mountains, C a p i t a 1 i a. |j 

"~ ~ _ i. " ~~ " 

§ These tribes must have been lic;.;-.ed in Kachh, a. 
mountainous 1 ongne of land between the gulf of that name, 
and the Ran, whore, mill whei-e only, in this region <>f 
Jmlia, a mu <v of muiMiliiiiiK i« to bo found running along 
the coast. Till! name iif Hie jMalti'fiiriu has attracted 
particular attention because of its resemblance to the mime 
of the Martikhora (L e. mini -eater), ;i 1'alAiloii.s animal 
mentioned by Ktcsias ((.Uesiii' lihlira, VI I.) as found in 
India ami subsisting upon limuaii flesh. The Maltecorai 
were consequently supposed to have, been a race of canni- 
bals. Tin' idi-ntilii'.iliiiii is, however, rejected by M. do 
■St. -Martin. The Singlue are represented at the present 
day by the Siinghis of Omurkot (called iho Song by Alms- 
Murdo), descendants of an ancient llsljput tribe failed tins 
KinghArs. The 3Jaroh:n are probably the Manillas of 1b<: 
list of ihe I'urCilni Siiitliii'i, which was later than Pliny's 
time by four and a half centuries. Ju the interval they were 
displaced, but the displacement of tribes was nothing 
nn usual in those days. So the Jlnrungu.' may perhaps be 
the ancestors of the Konghi or Khauga now found on tlm 
banks of the Satlcj and in the neighbourhood of Dihli. 

|| Capitalia is beyond doubt the saered Arbuda, or Mount 
Abu, which, attaining an elevation of 65110 feet, rises far 
above any other summit of the ArAvnii range. The name 
of the Nareai recalls that of the Na'ir, whieli the RAjput 
chroniclers apply to the northern belt of the desert (Tod, 
K'<./i,</7mIii, II. 21.1) ; so St.-Martin ; but according to Ge- 
neral Cunningham they must be i he pooplo^of Sand, or 
'the country of recjds, as nav and na? are synonymous 
terms for ' a reeiV and the country of Sa.rui is still fa- 
mous for it* reed-arrows. The same author uses the 
statement that externa ve gold and silver mines were work- 
ed ou the other side of Mount Capitalia in support of his 
theory that this part of India was the Ophir of Scripture, 
front which the Tyriau navy in the days of Solomon 
carried away gold, a great plenty of almug-trees (red 
sandalwood), and precious stones (1 Kings xii.). His 
argument runs thus: — " The last name in Pliny's list 
is Varetatio, which I would change to Vataretaj 
by the transposition of two letters. This spelling 
is countenanced hy the termination of the various read- 


The inhabitants on the other side of this mountain 
work extensive mines of gold and silver. Next 
are the O r a t u r se, whose king has only ten ele- 
phants, though he has a vjtry strong force of in- 

mg of Svarataratm, which* is found in some editions 
It is quite possible, however, that tho Sva.ratarataa may he 
intended for the Surashtras. The famous Varaha Mihira 
mentions the Surashtras and Badaras together, amongst 
the people of the south-west of India (Dr. Keen's Bfihat 
SaiihitA, XIV. 19.) These BAdaras must therefore be the 
people of Badari, or Vadari. I understand the name of 
Vadari to denote a district abounding in the Badctri, or 
Ber-troe (Jujube), which is very common in Southern RBj- 
putftaa. For the same reason J should look to this neigh- 
bourhood for tho ancient Sauvlra, which I take to be the 
true form of the famous Ruphir, or Ophir, as Sauvlra is 
only another name of the Vadari or Ber-tree, as well as 
of its juicy fruit. Now, Sofir is tho Coptic name of India. 
at the present day; bnt the name must have belonged 
originally to tiiat part of the Indian coast which was fre- 
quented by the merchants of the West. Thero can be 
little doubt, T think, that this was in the Gulf of Khambay, 
which from time immemorial has been the chief seat of 
Indian trade with the West. During the whole period of 
Greek history this trade was almost monopolized by the 
famous city of Barygasta, or Bhilroeh, at the mouth of the 
Narmada river. About the fourth century some portion of it 
was diverted to the new capital of Balabhi, in the peninsula 
of Gujarat ; in tho Middle Ages it was shared with Khambay 
at the head of the gulf, and in modern times with Surat, 
at the mouth of the Tapti. If the name of .Sauvlra was 
derived, as I suppose, from tho prevalence of the Ber-trce, 
it is probable that it was only another appellation for the 
province of Badari, or Edar, at the Jjead of the Gulf of 
Khambay. This, indeed, is the very positkm in which we 
should expect to find it, according to tho ancient inscrip- 
tion of lludru Damn, which mentions Sitidhu-Sauvfra 
immediately after SurAshtra and Bhariikachha, and just 
before Kukura Aparanta, and Nishada (/our. Vo. Br. R. 
As. Soe. VII. 120). According to this arrangement Sau- 
vtra must havo been to the north of Surflshtra and Bha- 
roch, and to the south of Nishada, or just where I have 

placed it, in the neighbourhood of Mount Abu. Much the 
same locality is assigned to Sauvlra in tho Viskriu Pur&na." 
—Ana. Geoff, of Ind. pp. -196-197 ; see alsopp. 560-563 of thu 
same work, where the subject is further^iscussed. 


fautry.^f Next again are the Varctatee,* subject 
to a king, who keep no elephants, but trust entirely 
to their horse and foot. Then the Odombccrse; 
the S a 1 a b a s t r ee ;t the H o r a t se,{ who ha<e 
a fine city, defended by marshes vrhich serve as a 
ditch, wherein crocodiles are kept which, having 
a great avidity for human flesh, prevent all access 
to the city except by a bridge. And another city 

1 v. 1. Orate. The Oratnrai find tlioir representatives in 
ths KAthors, who played a groat part in the history of India 
before the Musultniui conquest, arid who, though settled 
in tho Gangctic provinces, regard Ajmir, at the eastern 
point of the Ar&vali, as their ancestral scat. 

* v. 1. Snarataratai. The Varotate eannot with certainty 
be identified. 

t The Odomboertn, with hardly a change in the form 
of their name, arc mentioned in Sanskrit literature, for 
PAnini (IV. 1, 173, quoted by Lassen, Ind. Alt. 1st ed. I. p. 
614) speaks of the territory of Udumbari as that which was 
occupied by a tribe famous in the old legend, the Salva, who 
perhaps correspond to the Salabastrui of Pliny, the addition* 
which ho has niadc to Ihrir name being explained by the 
Sanskrit word vasLya, which mcimmui nbialu nr habitallui). 
The word luhimbara means tho glomerous fig-tree. Tho 
district so named lay in Knchh. [The Salabastrse are 
located by Lasseu between the mouth of tho Sarasvatt 
and Jodhpnr, and the Moratna at the head of tho gulf 
of KhambhAt; Automata, lie places at KhainbhAt. See 
Ind. Altertli. 2nd cd. 1. 7<>0. i'uhs has tho Sandrabatis 
about Chandr Avati, in northern Giyar At, but these are placed 
by Lassen on the Ba>4s about Tonk. — Ed. Ind. Ant.~\ 

% Jfoftittv isf" an incorrect transcription of Sorath, 
the vulgar form of the Sanskrit ftaurishtra. TheHorate 
were therefore tho inhabitants of the region called in tho 
PeripMa, and in Ptolemy, Surnstrene — that is, Gujarat. 
Orrhoth i^OppoBa) is used by Kosmas as tho name of a 
city in the west of India, which has been conjectured to be 
Surat, but Yulo thinks it rather soiuo place on the Pur- 
bandar coast. Tho capital, Automela, cannot be identified, 
but de St.-Martin conjectures it may have been the once 
famous Valahhl, which was situated m the peninsular part 
of Gujarat at about 24 miles' distance from the Gulf of 


oftheirs is much admired— A utomel a,§ which, 
being seated on the const, at the confluence of five 
rivers, is a noble emporium of trade. The king is 
master of 1600 elephants, 15,0,000 foot, and 5000 
cavalry. The pnorer king of the Char m se 
has but sixty clcjphants, arid Ins force otherwise 
is insignificant. Next come the P k u d se, the 
only race in India ruled by women. || Ihey say 
that Hercules having but one daughter, who was 
on that accoifnt all the more beloved, endowed 
her with a noble kingdom. Her descendants 
rule over 300 cities, and command an army of 
150,000 foot and 500 elephants. Nexl, with 
300 cities, the S y r i c n i, Dcrang :«, P o- 
si ngse, Bu zk, Gogiarei, Umbra;, N e- 
r e se, B r a u c o s i, N o b n n d »e, Coco n d u\ 
N e 8 e i, Pe d a t r i r as, S o 1 o b r i a s i«, O I o s- 
t r a;, % who adjoin the island Patalc, from the 

§ v. 1. Automula. See preceding note. 

\\ The CharmiB have been identified with the inlnibitants 
of Oharmamandala, a district of the west mentioned in 
the MaMhMrat.'. and also in tlio Vhhnit Piir'uut, under 
the form Charraakhanda. Thoy are now represented by 
the Charmftra or Chamfirs of Bundelkhand and Iho parts 
adjacent to the basin of tho Ganges. # The Panda', who 
were their next neighbours, must have oifcupW a con- 
siderable portion of the basin of the river Chambal, called 
in Sanskrit geography the Cbarmanvatf. They wore a 
branch of the famous race ef PAndu, which made for itself 
kingdoms in several different parts of India. 

% The names in this list lead us to the desert lying be- 
tween the Indus and the ArAvali range. Most of the tribes 
enumerated are mentioned in tho lists of the clans given 
in the Rajput chronicles, and have been identified by M. 
de St.-Martin aa follows :— The Syrieni are the Snriyanis, 
who under that name have at all times occupied the 
country near the Indus in the neighbourhood of Bakkar. 


furthest shore of which to the Caspian gates the 
distance is said to be 1925 miles.* 

Then next to these towards the Indus come; 
in an order which is easy to follow, the A nv»- 
tse, Bolingse, Gallital if,t ee, Dimuri, 
Megari, Or dab ue,|- M e s se( after these the 
Uri and Sileni.J Immediately beyond come 

Darangro is the Latin transcription of the name of the 
great race of the Jhfldcjftij, a branch of the llftjputs which 
at the present day possesses Kuchh. The Maine represent 
the Buddas, an ancient branch of the same JhftdejAs (Tod, 
Annals and Antiq, of the R3j. vol. I. p. 86). The Gogiare* 
(other readings Gogarasi, Gogaru)) are the Kokaris, who 
are now settled ou the banks of the Gliara or Lower Satlej. 
The Umbra) nre represented by the Uniranis, and the 
Kerei perhaps by the Nharonis, who, though belonging to 
Baluchistuii, had their ancestral seats in the regions to the 
east of the Indus. The Nubeteh, who figure in the old 
local traditions of Sindh, perhaps correspond to the No- 
bundio, while the Gocondm certainly are the Kokonadas 
mentioned in the Mah&bh&mta among the people of the 
north-west. (See Lassen, Zeitschrift filr din Kunde des 
Moryenl.t. II. 1830, p. 45.) Buchanan mentions a tribe 
called Kokand- us belonging to Gorakhpur. 

* There were two defiles, which went by the name of ' the 
Kaspian Gates.' One was in Albania, and was formed 
by the jutting out of a spur o.' the Kaukasos into the 
Kaspian Sea. The other, to which Pliny here refers, was 
a narrow pass leading from North- Western Asia into the 
north-east provinces of Persia. According to Arrian (^noi. 
III. 20) the Kaspian Gates lay a few da.ys' journey distant 
from the Median town of Ehagai, now represented by 
the ruins called^liha, found j. mile or two to the south of 
Teheran. This pass wan one of the most important places 
in ancient geography, and from it many of the meridians 
were measured. Strabo, who frequently mentions it, states 
that its distance from the extreme promontories of India 
(Cape Comorin, Ac.) was 14,000 stadia. 

t v. 1. Ardabse. 

J In the grammatical apophthegms of Paiiini, Bhaulingi 
is mentioned as a territory occupied by a, branch of the 
great tribe of the Salvas (Lassen, Ind. Alt. I. p. 618, note, 
or 2nd ed. p. 760 n.), and from this indication M. de St.- 
Marrin has been led to place the Bolingre at the western 


deserts extending for 250 miles. These being pass- 
ed, we come to the O r g a n a g re, A b a o r t ee, 
Sibaree, Snertae, and after these to deserts 
%s extensive as the former. Then come the 
Sarophageg, S o r g oe, B a r a o m a t se, and 
the Umbrittas,§ who consist of twelve tribes, 
each possessing two cities, and the A s e n i, who 
possess three cities. || Their capital is Buce- 
phala, bnilt where Alexander's famous horse 

declivity of tho ArftvaH mountains, where Ptolemy also 
places his Bolingu}. Tho Madrabhnjingha of the Paujah 
(see Vishnu Pur. p. 18") wore probably a branch of this 
tribe. Tho Gullitnluto are identified by the same author 
with the Gahalata or Geblota ; the Diinnri with the Dumras, 
who, though belonging to the Gungntic valley, originally 
came from that of tlie Indus ; tho Slegari with theMokars 
of the Bfljput chronicles, whose name is perhaps preserv- 
ed in that of the Mehars of the lower part of Sindh, and 
also in that of the Meghfiris of Eastern Balucbistfin ; tho 
Hesse with tho Mazaris, a considerable tribe between 
ShikArpur and Mitunkdt on tho wpstoni bank of thi* 
Indus ; and the Uri with the Hauras of the same locality 
— the Ilnrairas who figure in tho Bnjpiit lists of thirty-six 
royal tribes. The Sulalas of the same tribes perhaps 
represent the Sileni, whom Pliny mentions along with the 

§ tv. 11. Paragomatac, TJrabilno. — Baraomatoa Gunibri- 

|| The tribes hero enumerated must have occupied a tract 
of country lying above the confluence of the Indus with 
the stream of the combined rivers of^he Paujab. They are 
obscure, and their names cannot witht any certainty be 
identified if we except that of the Sibara, who are un- 
doubtedly tho Sauviras of the Mahdbhh-ata, and who, as 
their name is almost invariably combined with that of the 
Indus, must have dwelt not far from its banks. The 
Afghan tribe of the Afridls may perhaps represent the 
Abaorte, and the Sarabhan or Sarvants, of the same stock, 
the Sarophages. The Umbrittse and the Aseni take us to 
the east of the river. The former are perhaps identical 
with the Ambastre of the historians of Alexander, and the 
Ambasthas of Sanskrit writings, who dwelt in the neigh- 
bourhood of the lower Akesines. 


of that name wns buried.^f Hillmen follow next, 
inhabiting the baae of Caucasus, the S o 1 e a d oe, 
and the S o n d r se ; and if we cross to the other 
side of the Indus and follow its course downward 
we meet the S amar ab rise, S„ambruceni, 
B,isambrit8e,* O si% Antixen i, and the 
T a x i 1 1 sef with a famous city. Then succeeds 

IT Alexander, aftei the groat battle ou the banks of the . 
Hi' daspi's in which he defeated P6ros, founded two cities — 
Bakephalu, or Bukephalia, so named in honou^ of his cele- 
brated charger, and Nikaia, so named in honour of his vic- 
tory. Nikaia, it is known for certain, was built ou the 
field of battle, and its position was therefore on the left- 
side of the Kydaspcs — probably about where Moug uow 
stands. The site of Bnkcphala it is not so cnay to deter- 
mine. According to Plutarch and Pliny it was near the 
Hydaspfs, in the place where Bukephnlos was buried, and 
if that lie so it must have been on the samo side of the 
river as tbo sister city ; whereas Strabo and all the other 
ancient authorities place it on the opposite side. Strabo 
again places it at tjhe point where Alexander crossed the 
river, whereas Anion states that it was built on the site 
of his camp. General Cunningham fixes this at JalAlpur 
rather than at Jhelam, 30 miles higher up the river, the site 
which is favoured by Burnes and General Court and 
General Abbott. Jalftlpur is about ten miles distant from 
Dilftwar, where, according to Cunningham, the crossing of 
the river was most probably effected. 

* v. 1. Bisabritaj. 

t The Soleadte and the Sondrse cannot be identified, and 
of the tribes which were seated to the cast of the Indus 
only the Taxilko are known. Their capital wasjbhe famous 
Taxila, which was visited by Alexander the Great. "The 
position of this cit*," says Cunningham, " has hitherto re- 
mained unknown, partly owing to the erroneous distance 
recorded by Pliny, and partly to the want of information 
regarding the vast ruins which still exist in the vicinity of 
Shah-dheri. All the copies of Pliny agree in stating that 
Taxila was only 60 Roman, or 55 English, miles from Peuco- 
laftis or Hashtnagar, which would fix its site somewhere on 
the Haro river to the west of Hasan Abdal, or just two 
days' march from the Indus. But the itineraries _ of the 
Chinese pilgrims agree in placing it at three days' journey 
to the east of the Indus, or in the immediate neighbourhood of 
Kala-ka-Sarfti. He therefore fixes its site near Shfth-dheri 


a level tract of country known by the general 
name of Amanda,! whereof the tribes are 
four in number— the P e u c o 1 a i t se,§ A r s a- 
galitee, G eretse, Aso^i. 

Many writers* however, do not give the river 
Indus as the western bdundary of India, but in- 
clude within it four satrapies, — the G e d r o s i, 
Arachotse, Arii, Par opajji isa dse,|| 

(which is a mile to the north-east of that SaraTl, in the 
extensive ruin's of a fortified city abounding with sttipas, 
monasteries, and temples. From this place to Hashtnagar 
the distance is 74 miles English, or 19 iu excess of Pliny's 
estimate. Taxila represents the Sanskrit Takshaaila, of 
which the Pali form is Takbasila, whonco the Greek form was 
taken. The word means cither ' cut rock" or ' severed 
head.' — Ane. Oeog. of hid. pp. 104-121. 

% As the name Amanda is entirely unknown, M. do St.- 
Martin proposes without hesitation the correction GandhAra, 
on the ground that the territory assigued to the Amanda 
corresponds exactly to Gandhfvra, of wbieh the territory 
occupied by the Pcucolitas (Poukclaotis), as we know from 
other writers, formed a part. The Gnrctas are beyond 
doubt no others than the Gouwei of Arvi:tn ; and the Asoi 
may perhaps bo identical with the Aspasii, or, ;is Strabo 
gives the name, Hippasii or Pasii. The Arsagalitso are 
only mentioned by Pliny. Two tribes settled iu tho same 
locality arc perhaps indicated by the name — the Arsa, men- 
tioned by Ptolemy, answering to the Sanskrit Ura.% ; and 
the GhUit or Ghilghit, tho Gahalata of Sanskrit', formerly 

S v. 1. Pcu,colitao. 

I] Godrdsia comprehended probably nearly the same dis- 
trict which is now Known by the name of MekrAn. Alex- 
ander marched through it on returning from his Indian 
expedition. ArachdsLi oxtended from tho chain of moun- 
tains now called tho SuleiinAn as far southward as Gedrfoia. 
Its capital, Arnchotos, was bituated somewhere in the direc- 
tion of Kandahfir, tho name of which, it has been thought, 
preserves that of Gandhfira. Acoording to Colonel llawlinaon 
the name of Araehosia is derived from Harakhwati (Sans- 
krit Sarasvaii), and is preserved in tho Arabic Rakhoj. It 
is, as haB already been A noticed, the Harauvatas of the 
BisuLun inscription. Aria denoted tho country lying 
between Meshed and Her&t ; Ariflna, of which it formed a 


making the river Cophes its furthest limit; 
though others prefer to consider all these as be- 
longing to the Arii. 

Many writers further include in India even thj 
city N y s a and Mount M e r u s, -sacred to Father 
Bacchus, whence the origin of the^ fable that he 
sprang from the thigh of Jupiter. They include 
also the A s t a c a n i,^[ in whose country the vine 

part, and of which it is sometimes used as the equivalent, 
was a widor district, which comprehended nearly the whole 
of ancient Persia. In the Persian part of the Bisutnn 
inscription Aria appears as Hariva, iu the Babylonian part 
as Arevan. Regarding Paroparnisos and the Cophes see 
lnd„ Ant. vol. V. pp. 329 and 330. 

T Other readings of the name are Aspagani and Aspa- 
gonee. M. do St.-Martin, whose work has so often 
been referred to, says:-- We have seen already that 
in an extract from old. Hekataios preserved in Stephen 
of Byzantium the city of Kaspupyros is called a Gandaric 
city, and that_ in , Herodotus the same place is attributed 
to the Paktyi, and we have added that in our opinion 
there is only an apparent contradiction, because the district 
of Paktyik£ and Gandara may vory well he but one and 
tho same country. Jt is not difficult, in fact, to recognize in 
the designation mentioned by ilerodotos the indigenous 
name of the Afghan people, Pakhtn (in the plural Pakh- 
tun), the name which tho greater part of the tribes use 
among themselves, and the only one they apply to their 
national dialect. We have here, then, as Lassen lias noticed, 
historical proof of the presence of the Afghans in their 
actual fatherland live centuries at least before tho Christian 
era. Now, as the seatujf the Afghan or Pakht national- 
ity is chiefly in th!s basin of the Kophcs, to the west of the 
Indus, which forms its eastern boundary, this further 
confirms what wc have already seen, that it is to the west 
of tho great river we must seek for the site of the city of 
Kaspapyros or Kasyapapura, and consequently of the 
Gandane" of Hekataios. The employment of two different 
names to designate the very same country is easily 
explained hy this_ double fact, that one_ of tho names 
was the Indian designation of the land, whilst the other was 
the indigenous name applied to it by its inhabitants. There 
was yet another name, of Sanskrit origin, used as a territorial 
appellation of Gandhara— that of Asvaka. This word, 


grows abundantly, and the laurel, and boxwood, 
and every kind of fruit- tree found in Greece. The 
remarkable and almost fabulous accounts which 
arg current regarding the fertility of its soil, and 
the nature of its fruits and 'trees, its beasts and 
birds and other animals, ■will be set down each in 
its own place in other parts of this work. A little 
further on I shall speak of the satrapies, but the 
island of T a p r o b a n e§ requires my immediate 
attention. « 

But before wc come to this island there are 
others, one being P a t a 1 e, which, as we have 
indicated, lies at the mouth of the Indus, triangular 
in shape, and 220 1| miles in breadth. Beyond the 
mouth of the Indus arc C h r y s c aud A r g y r c,^| 

derived from aim, a horse, signified merely the cavalier*; 
it was loss an ethnic, in the rigorous acceptation of the 
word, than a general appellation applied hy the Indians of 
the Punjab to tho tribes of the region of tho Kophi's, 
renowned from antiquity for the excellence of its horses. 
In the popular dialects the Sanskrit word took the usual 
form Assaka, which reappears scarcely modified in Assakani 
('Ao-o-cncai'ot')or Assaki , ni('Ao-irai£ni'oi ) in the Greek histori- 
ans of the expedition of Alexander and subsequent writers. 
It is impossible not to recognise; here tho name of Avghfln 
or Afghans. . . which is vory evidently nothing else than 
a contracted form of Aseaki'in. . . Neither the Gandarie of 
Hekataios nor* tho Paktyi of Horodotcjg are known to them 
[Arrian and other Greek and Latin writers of tho history 
of Alexander], but as it is tho same territory [as that of 
the Assrtkani], and as in actual nsagc the names Afghans and 
l'akhtun are still synonymous, their identity is not a matter 
of doubt." — W titde sur le Gfajrajihie (Jrecqiie et Lxtine de 
I'Inde, pp. 376-8. Tho name of tho Gandbara, it may 
hero.be added, remounts to the highest antiquity ; it is 
mentioned in one of the hymns of the Rig- Veda, as old 
perhaps as tho 15th century B.C. — Id. p. 3(14. 

§ Vide ante, p. 62, n. *. || C'CXJT.-v. L CXXX. 

1 Burma and Arakan respectively, according to Yule.— 
Ed. InA. Ant. 


rich, as I believe, in metals. For I cannot readily 
believe, what is asserted by some writers, that their 
soil is impregnated with gold and silver. At a dis- 
tance of twenty miles from these lies C r o c a 1 ay* 
from which, at a distance of twelve miles, is 
B i b a g a, which abounds with oysters and other 
shell-fish.f Next comes T o r a 1 1 i b a,£ nine 
miles distant from the last-named island, beside 
many others unworthy of note. 

Fjragm. LVI. B. 

Solin. 52. 0-17. 

Catalogue of Indian Baces. 

The greatest rivers of India arc the (1 a n g e s 
and Indus, and of these some assert that the 
Ganges rises from uncertain sources and inundates 
the country in the manner of the Nile, while others 
incline to think that it rises in the Scythian moun- 
tains. [The Hypanisis also there, a very noble 
river, which formed the limit of Alexander's 
march, as the altars erected mi its banks prove.§] 

* In the bay of Karftchi, identical with the Kolaka of 
Ptolemy. Tho district in which Karflchl is situated is called 
Karkalla to this day.^ 

t This is callel Bibakta by Arrian, Indika, cap. xxi. 
X v. 1. Coralliba. 

§ See Arrian's Anah. V. 29, where we read that Alexander 
having arranged his troops in separate divisions ordered 
them to build on the banks of the Hyphasis twelve altars to 
be of equal height with the loftiest towers, while exceed- 
ing them in breadth. From Curtius we learn that they 
were formed of square blocks of stone. - There has 
been much controversy regarding their site, hut it must 
have been near the capital of Sopithes, whose name 
Lassen has identified with the Sanskrit Akapati, ' lord of 


The least breadth ofthe Ganges is eight miles, and 
its greatest twenty. Its depth where it is shallow- 
est is fully a hundred foot. The people who live 
in the furthcst-off part are the Gangarides, 
wnose king possesses 1000 Jiorso, 700 elephants, 
and 60,000 foot m apparatus of war. 

Of the Indianji some cultivate the soil, very many 
follow war, and others trade. The noblest and 
richest manage public affairs, administer justice, 
and sit in council with the kings. There exists 
also a fifth ojass, consisting of those most eminent 
for their wisdom, who, when sated with life, seek 
death by mounting a burning funeral pile. Those, 
however, who have becomo the devotees of a sternor 
sect, and pass their lifo in the woods, hunt ele- 
phants, which, when made quite tame and docile, 
they use for ploughing and for riding on. 

In the Ganges there is an island oxtremcly po- 
pulous, occupied by a very powerful nation whose 
king keeps under arms 50,000 foot and 4000 horse. 
In fact no one invested with kingly power ever 
keeps on foot a military force without a very great 
number of elephants and foot and cavalry. 

The P r a s i a n nation, which is extremely power- 
ful, inhabits a city called Palibotra, whence 
some call the nation itself the Palibotri. Their 

horses.' These Asvapati wore a line of princes whose terri- 
tory, according to the 12th book of tho Rdm&yana, lay on 
the right or north bank ef tho Vipfl&i (Hyphasis or Bias), 
in the mountainous part of tho Doab comprised between 
that river and the Upper Iravati. Their capital is called 
in the poem of Vfllmiki Rajagriba, which still exists under 
the name of Rajagiri. At some distance from this there 
is a chain of heights called Sekandar-giri, or ' Alexan- 
der's mountain.'— See St.-Martin's E'tude, Ac. pp. 108- 


king keeps in his pay at all times 60,000 foot 
30,000 horse, and 8000 elephants. 

Beyond Palibotra is Mount M a 1 e u s,|| on which 
shadows in winter fall towards the north, in sum- 
mer towards the soutk, for six months alternately. 
In that region the Bears are sect but once a year, 
and not for more than fifteen dayi, as Beton in- 
forms us, who allows that this happens in many 
parts of India. Those living near the river Indus 
in the regions that turn southward are scorched 
more than others by the heat, and at ^ast the com- 
plexion of the people is visibly affected by the 
great powor of the sun. The mountains are in- 
habited by the Pygmies. 

But those who live near the sea have no kings. 

The Pan due an nation is governed by fe- 
males, and their first queen is said to have ' 
been the daughter of Hercules. The city N y s a 
is assigned to this region, as is also the moun- 
tain sacred to Jupiter, Muros by name, in a 
cavo on which the ancient Indians affirm Father 
Bacchus was nourished ; while the name has 
given rise to the well-known fantastic story that 
Bacchus was born from tho thigh of his father. 
Beyond tho mouth of the Indus arc two islands, 
Chryse and Argyrc, which yield such an 
abundant suj-.ply of mctala that many writers 
allege their soils consist of gold and of silver. 

|| Possibly, as suggested by Yule, Mount Pfiravanfifcha, 
near the Damuda, and- not far from the Tropic; vide 
Ind. Ant. vol. VI. p. 127, note §, and conf. vol. I. p. 46ff. 
The Molli (see above), in whose country it was, are not to 
be confounded with another tribe of the same name in the 
1'anjfib, mentioned by Anion ; see vol. Y. pp. 87, 96, 383. — 
En. XnA. Ant. 

Fragm. LVII. 

Polysoii. Siratetj. I. 1. 1-3. 
Of Stony 808. 
# (Cf. Epit. 25 et seq.) 

Dionysos, in his expedition against the Indians, 
in order that the cities might receive him will- 
ingly, disguisetl the arms with which he had 
equipped his troops, and made them wear soft 
raiment and fawn-skins. The spears were wrapped 
round witl^ ivy, and the thyrsus had a sharp 
point. He gave the signal for hattle hy cymbals 
and drums instead of the trumpet, and by regaling 
the enemy with wine diverted their thoughts from 
war to dancing. These and nil other Bacchic 
orgies were employed in the system of warfare by 
which he subjugated the Indians and all the rest 
of Asia. 

Dionvsos, in the course of his Indian cam- 
paign, seeing that his army could not endure the 
fiery heat of the air, took forcible possession of the 
three-peaked mountain of India. Of these peaks 
one is called Korasibie, another K o n dask §, 
but to the third he himself gave the name of 
M e r o s, in remembrance of hi* birth . Thereon 
were many fountains of water sweet to drink, game 
in great plenty, tree-fruits in unsparing profusion, 
and snows which gave new vigour to the frame. 
The troops quartered there made a sudden descent 
upon the barbarians of the plain, whom they easily 
routed, since they attacked them with missiles 
from a commanding position on the height? above. 


[Dionysos, after conquering the Indians, in- 
vaded Baktria, talcing with him as auxiliaries 
the Indians and Amazons. That country has 
for its boundary the river S a r an gfi s.^[ The 
Baktrians seized the mountains overhanging that 
river with a view to attack Dionysos, in cross- 
ing it, from a post of advantage lie, however, 
having encamped along the river, ordered the 
Amazons and the Bakkhai to cross it, in order 
that the Baktrians, in their contempt, for women, 
might be induced to come down from the heights. 
The women then assayed to cross the stream, and 
the enemy came downhill, and advancing to the 
river endeavoured to beat them back. The women 
then retreated, and the Baktrians pursued them 
as far as the bank ; then Dionysos, coming to the 
rescue with his men, slew the Baktrians, who 
were impeded from fighting by the current, and he 
crossed the river in safety. 

Fragm. LVIII. 

Polyran. Stratcg. 1. 3. 4. 
Of Hercules and Pandeea. 
(Qf. Frtym. L. 15.) 
H e r a k 1 8 s begat a daughter in India whom 
he called P an d a i a. To her he assigned that 
portion of India which lies to southward and ex- 
tends to the sea, whil.e he distributed the people 
subject to her rule into 365 villages, giving orders 
that one village should each day bring to the 

IT St>e Ind. Ant., Notes to Arrian in vol. V. p. 332. 


treasury the royal tribute, so that the queen 
might always have the assistance of those men 
whose turn it was to pay the tribute in coercing 
tyosc who for the time being were defaulters in 
their payments. 

Fragm.' LIX.t 
Of the Beasts of India. 
JElian, Hist. Anim. XVI. 2-22 * 
(2) In India I learn that there arc to be found 
the birds called parrots ; and though I have, no 
doubt, already mentioned them, yet what I omit- 
ted to state previously regarding them may now 
with great propriety be here set down. There 
are, I am informed, three species of them, and all 
these, if taught to speak, as children are taught, 
become as talkative as children, and speak with 
a human voice; but in the woods they utter 
a bird-like scream, and neither send out any 
distinct and musical notes, nor being wild and 
untaught are able to talk. There are also 
peacocks in India, the largest anywhere met with, 

* " In thistxtract not afow passages occur which appear 
to hare Iwen borrowed from Megasthe»cs. This con- 
jecture, though it cannot by any means bo placed beyond 
doubt by conclusive proofs, soems nevertheless, for various 
reasons, to attain a certain degree of probability. For 
in the first place the author knows with unnsual ac- 
curacy the interior parts of India. Then again ho makes 
very frequent mention of the Frasii and the Brahmans. 
And lastly one can hardly doubt that some chapters occur- 
ring in the middle of this part have been extracted from 
Megasthenf b. I have, therefore, in this uncertainty taken 
care that the whole of this part should be printed at the 
end of the fragments of Megasthenes."— Schwanbeck. 


and pale-green ringdoves. One who is not 
well-versed in bird-lore, seeing these for the 
first time, would take them to be parrots, and 
not pigeons. In the colour of the bill and legs 
they resemble Greek partridges. There are also 
cocks, which are of extraordinary size, and have 
their crests not red as elsewhere, or at least in 
our country, but have the flower-like coronals 
of which the crest is formed variously coloured. 
Their rump feathers, again, are ne%hcr curved 
nor wreathed, but are of great breadth, and they 
trail them in the way peacocks trail their 
tails, when they neither straighten nor erect 
them : the feathers of these Indian cocks are in 
colour golden, and also dark-blue like the sma- 

(3) There is found in India also another re- 
markable bird. This is of the size of a starling 
and is parti-coloured, and is trained to utter the 
sounds of human speech. It is even more talka- 
tive than the parrot, and of greater natural clever- 
ness. So far is it from submitting with pleasure 
to be fed by man, that it rather has such a pining 
for freedom, and sQch a longing to warble at will in 
the society of its mates, that it prefers starvation 
to slavery with sumptuous fare. It is called by 
the Makedonians who settled among the Indians 
in the city ofBoukephala and its neighbour- 
hood, and in the city called Kuropolis, and 
others which Alexander the son of Philip built, 
the Kerkion. This name had, I believe, its ori- 


giu in the fact thai the bird wags its tail in the 
same way as the water-ousels (o» Kiyic\oi)* 

(1) I learn further that in India there is a bird 
called the Kelas, which is thrice the size of the 
• bustard, and has a bill of 'prodigious size and 
long legs. It is furnished also with an immense 
crop resembling^ leather pouch. • The cry which 
it utters is peculiarly discordant. The plumage 
is ash-coloured, except that the feathers at their 
tips arc tinted with a pale yellow. 

(it) I hear also that the Indian hoopoe (*(irona) 
is double the size of ours, and more beautiful 4n 
appearance, and Homer says that while the bridle 
and trappings of a horse are the delight of a Hel- 
lenic king, this hoopoe is the favourite plaything 
of the king of the Indians, who carries it on his 
hand, and toys with it, and never tires gazing in 
ecstasy on its splendour, and the beauty with which 
Nature has adorned it. The Brachmancs, there- 
fore, even make this particular bird the subject of 
a mythic story, and the tale told of it runs thus : — 
To the king of the Indians there was born a 
son. The child had elder brothers, who when they 
came to maVs estate turned put to be very un- 
just and the greatest of reprobates, llicy despised 
their brother because he was the youngest ; and 
they scoffed also at their father and their mother, 
whom they despised because they were very old 
and grey-haired. The boy, accordingly, and his 
aged parents could at last no longer live with these 
wicked men, and away they fled from home, .ill 


three together. In the course of the protracted 
journey which they had then to undergo, the old 
people succumbed to fatigue and died, and the boy 
showed them no light regard, but buried them in 
himself, having cutoff hishead with a sword. Then, 
as the Brachmanes tell us, the all-seeing sun, 
in admiration of this surpassing act of piety, trans- 
formed the boy into a bird which is most beauti- 
ful to behold, and which lives to a very advanced 
age. So on his head there grew up^a crest which 
was, as it were, a memorial of what he had 
done at the time of his flight. The Athenians 
have also related, in a fable, marvels somewhat 
similar of the crested lark ; and this fable Aristo- 
phanes, the comic poet, appears to me to have 
followed when he says in the Birds, " For thou 
wcrt ignorant, and not always bustling, nor 
always thumbing jEsop, who spake of the crested 
lark, calling it the first of all birds, born before 
ever the earth was ; and telling how afterwards 
her father became sick and died, and how that, as 
the earth did not then exist, he lay unburied till the 
fifth day,"whcn his daughter, unable to find a grave 
elsewhere, chig tfnc for him in her own head."|| 

|| Linos 470-75:— 
" Yon'ro sucli a dull incurious lot, unread in iEsop's lore, 
Whoso story says the lark was born firs!; of the feathered 

Before the earth ; then came a cold and carried off his sire : 
Earth was not : five days lay the old bird untombed : at last 

the son 
Buried the father in his head, since other grave was 

none." .... 

Dr. Kennedy a translation, 


It seems, accordingly, probable that the fable, 
though with a different bird for its subject, 
emanated from the Indians, and spread onward 
eveji to the Greeks. For the Brachmanes say 
•that a prodigious time ha? elapsed since the 
Indian hoopoe, then in human form and young in 
years, performed'that act of picty*to its parents. 

(6.) In India there is an animal closely resem- 
bling in appearance the land crocodile, and some- 
where about ^le size of a little Maltese dog. It 
is covered all over with a scaly skin so rough 
altogether and compact that when flayed off irts 
used by the Indians as a file. It cuts through 
brass and eats iron. They call it the phattages 
(pangolin or scaly ant-eater) 

(8.) The Indian sea breeds sea-snakes which 
have broad tails, and the lakes breed hydras of 
immense size, but these sea-snakes appear to 
inflict a bite more sharp than poisonous. 

(9.) In India there are herds of wild horses, 
and also of wild asses. They say that the mares 
submit to be covered by the asses, and enjoy 
such coition, and breed mules, which are of a 
reddish colour and very fleet, «but impatient of 
the yoke and otherwise skittish. They say that 
they catch these mules with foot-traps, and then 
take them to the king of the Prasians, and that 
if they are caught when two years old they do 
not refuse to be broken in, but if caught when 
beyond that age they differ in no respect from 
sharp-toothed and carnivorous animals. 


(Fragm. XI L B follows liere.) 

(1 1 .) There is found in India a grarninivorou s 
animal which is double the size of a horse, and 
which has a very bushy tail purely blaclr.in 
colour. The hair of this tail is finer than hu- 
man hair, and its possession is a point on which 
Indian women set great store, for therewith they 
make a, charming coiffure, by binding and braid- 
ing it with the locks of their own natural hair. 
The length of a hair is two cubifcs, and from a 
single root there sprout out, in the form of a 
ftingc, somewhere about thirty hairs. The ani- 
mal itself is the most timid that is known, for 
should it pcrreive that any one is looking at it, it 
starts off at its utmost speed, and runs right 
forward,— r-but its eagerness to escape is greater 
than the rapidity of its pace. It is hunted with 
horses and hounds good to run. When it sees 
that it is on the point of being caught, it hides its 
tail in some near thicket, while it stands at bay 
facing its pursuers, whom it watches narrowly. It 
even plucks up courage in a way, and thinks that 
since its tail is hid from view the hunters will not 
care to capture it, for it knows that its tail is the 
great object of attraction. But it finds this to 
be, of course, a vain delusion, for some one hits 
it with a poisoned dart, who then flays off the 
entire skin (for this is of value) and throws away 
the carcase, as the Indians make no use of any 
part of its flesh. 

(12.) But further; whales are to be found 


in the Indian Sea, and these five times larger 
than the largest elephant. A rib of this mon- 
strous fish measures as much as twenty cubits, 
^ind its lip fifteen cubits. The fins near the 
gills are each of them so much as seven cubits 
iu breadth. The shellfish called Kerukes are 
also met with, and the purple-fish of a size 
that would admit it easily into a gallon mea- 
sure, while on the other hand the shell of the 
sea-urchin is large enough to cover com- 
pletely a measure of that size. Bnt fish in India 
attain enormous dimensions, especially tbffsea- 
wolves, the thunnies, and the golden-eyebrows. 
I hear also that at the season when the rivers are 
swollen, and with their full and boisterous flood 
deluge all the land, the fish arc carried into the 
fields, where they swim and wander to and fro, 
even in shallow water, and that when the rains 
which flood the rivers cease, and the waters re- 
tiring from the land resume their natural chan- 
nels, then in the low-lying tracts and in flat 
and marshy grouuds, where we may be sure the 
so-called Nine are wont to have some watery re- 
cesses ((cotamis). fish even of eight cubits' length 
are found, which the husbandmen themselves 
catch as they swim about languidly on the surface 
of the water, which is no longer of a depth they 
can freely move in, but in fact so very shallow 
that it is with the utmost difficulty they can 
live iu it at all. 

(13.) The following fish are also indigenous 

fo India : -prickly roaches, which are never in 
any respect, smaller than the asps of Argolis ; and 
shrimps, which in India are even larger than 
crabs. Th^se, I must mention, finding their 
way from the sea up the Ganges, have claws 
which are very large, and which feel rough to 
the touch. I have ascertained that vhose shrimps 
which pass from the Persian Gulf into the river 
Indus have their prickles smooth, and the feelers 
with which they arc furnished elongated and 
eurliug, hut this species has no claws. 

(F*;) The tortoise is found in India, where it 
lives in the rivers. It is of immense size, and it has 
a shell not smaller than a full-sized skiff (cnca^i;), 
and which is capable of holding ten medimui 
(120 gallons), of pulse. There arc, however, also 
laud- tortoises which may be about as big as the 
largest clods turned up in a rich soil where the 
glebe is very yielding, and the plough sinks 
deep, and, cleaving the furrows with ease, piles 
the clods up high. These arc said to cast their 
shell. Husbandmen, and all the hands engaged 
in field labour, turn them up with their mattocks, 
and take them outrjust in the way one extracts 
wood-worms from the plants they have eaten 
into. They are fat things and their flesh is 
sweet, having nothing of the sharp flavour of the 

(IS.) Intelligent animals are to be met with 
among ourselves, but they are few, and not at all so 
common as they are in India. For there we find 


the elephant, which answers to this character and 
the parrot, and apes of the sphinx kind, and 
the creatures called satyrs. Nor lfitist we for- 
get the Indian ant, which is so rioted for its 
wisdom. The ants of dur own country do, no 
doubt, dig for themselves subterranean holes and 
burrows, and* by boring provide themselves with 
lurking-places, and wear out all their strength in 
what may be called mining operations, which are 
iudescribably toilsome and conducted with se- 
crecy ; but the Indian ants construct for them- 
selves a cluster of tiny dwelling-houses, Mited 
not on sloping or level grounds where they could 
easily be inundated, but on steep and lofty 
eminences. And in these, by boring out with 
untold skill certain circuitous passages which 
remind one of the Egyptian burial-vaults or 
Cretan labyrinths, they so contrive the structure 
of their houses that none of the lines run 
straight, and it is difficult for anything to enter 
them or flow into them, the windings and per- 
forations being so tortuous. On the outside 
they leave only a single aperture to admit them- 
selves ami the grain which* they collect and 
carry to their store-chambers. Their object in 
selecting lofty sites for their mansions is, of 
course, to escape the high floods and inundations 
of the rivers ; and they derive this advantage 
from their foresight, that they live as it were in 
so many watch-towers or islands when the parts 
around the heights become all a lake. More- 


over, the mounds they live in, tl'ough placed 
in contiguity, so far from being I.toscned and 
torn asunder by the deluge, are rather strength- 
ened, especially by the morning dew: for they 
put on, so to speak, a boat of ice formed from 
this dew — thin, no doubj;, but slill of strength • 
while at the same* time they arc mildc more con: 
pact at their base by weeds and bark of trees 
adhering, which the silt of the river has carried 
down. Let so much about Indian ants be said 
by me now, as it was said by lobas long ago. 

(<k-S) In the country of the Indian A r c i a n o i 
there is a subterranean chasm down in which 
there are mysterious vaults, concealed ways, and 
thoroughfares invisible to men. These are deep 
withal, and stretch to a very great distance. How 
they came to exist, and how they were excavated, 
the Indians do not say, nor do I concern myself 
to inquire. Hither the Indians bring more than 
thrice ten thousand head of cattle of different 
kinds, sheep and goats, and oxen and horses ; and 
every person who has been terrified by an omin- 
ous dream, or a warning sound or prophetic voice, 
or who has seen aibird of evil augury, as a sub- 
stitute for his lile casts into the chasm such a victim 
as his private means can afford, giving the animal 
as a ransom to save his soul alive. The victims 
conducted thither arc not led in chains nor other- 
wise coerced, but they go along this road willing- 
ly, as if urged forward by some mysterious spell ; 
and as soon as they find themselves on the verge 


of the chasm (hey voluntarily leap in, and dis- 
appear for ever from human sight so .soon as they 
fall into this mysterious and viewless cavern 
06 the earth. But above # there are heard the 
bellowings of oxijn, the bleating of sheep, the 
neighing of horses, and the plaintive cries of 
goats, and if any one goes near enough to the 
edge and closely applies his ear he will«hear afar 
off the sounds just mentioned. This commingled 
sound is onerthat never ceases, for every day that 
passes men bring new victims to be their sub- 
stitutes. Whether the cries of the animals last 
brought only are heard, or the cries also of those 
brought before, I know not, — all I know is that 
the cries are heard. . 

(17) In the sea which has been mentioned they 
say there is a very large island, of which, as I hear, 
the name is Taproband. From what I can 
learn, it appears to be a very long and mountainous 
island, having a length of 7000 stadia anda breadth 
of 5000.*!" It has not, however, any cities, but only 
villages, of which the number amounts to 750. The 
houses in which the inhabitants lodge themselves 
are made of wood, and sometimes also of reeds. 

(18.) In the sea which surrounds the islands, 
tortoises are bred of so vast a size that their shells 
are employed to make roofs for the houses : for a 
shell, being fifteen cubits in length, can hold a 

If In the classical writers tho size of this island is uiwayx 
greatly exaggerated. Its actual length from north to 
south i»27U miles, and its breadth from east to west 137J, 
and ite circuit about 650 miles. t 


good many people under it, screening them frofri 
the scorching heat of the sun, besides affording 
them a welcome shade. But, more than this, it 
is a protection against the violence of storms. of 
rain far more effective" than tiles, for it at once 
shakes off the rain that dashes against it, while 
those under its shelter hear the "rain rattling as 
on the roof of a house. At all events they do 
not require to shift their abode, like those whose 
tiling is shattered, for the shell is h?rd and like 
a hollowed rock and the vaulted roof of a natural 

The island, then, in the great sea, which they 
call Taprobane, has palm-groves, where the trees 
arc jilanted with wonderful regularity all in a row, 
in the way wo sec the keepers of pleasure-parks 
plant out shady trees in the choicest spots. It 
has also herds of elephants, which are there very 
numerous and of the largest size. These island 
elephants are more powerful than those of the 
mainland, and in appearance larger, and may 
be pronounced to be in every possible way more 
intelligent. The islanders export them to the 
mainland opposite in boats, which they construct 
expressly for this traffic from wood supplied 
by the thickets of the island, and they dispose 
of their cargoes to the king of the Kalingai. 
On account of the great size of the island, the 
inhabitants of the interior have never seen the 
si a, bat pass their lives as if resident on a con- 
tinent, though tno doubt they learn from others 


that they are all around enclosed by the sea. 
The inhabitants, again, of the coast have no 
practical acquaintance with elephant-catching, 
a*d know of it only by report. All their energy 
is devoted to earthing fish and the monsters of 
the deep ; for the sea encircling the island is 
reported to breed an incredible number of fish, 
both of the smaller fry and of the monstrous 
sort, among the latter being some which have the 
heads of licais and of panthers and of other wild 
beasts, and also of rams; and, what is stil^a 
greater marvel, there are monsters which in all 
points of their shape resemble satyrs. Others 
are in appearance like women, but, instead of 
having locks of hair, arc furnished with prickles. 
It is even solemnly alleged that this sea contains 
cei'tain strangely formed creatures, to represent 
which in a picture would baffle all the skill of the 
artists of the country, even though, with a view to 
make a profound sensation, they arc wont to 
paint monsters which consist of different parts of 
different animals pieced together. These have 
their tails und the parts which are wreathed of 
great length, and have for ' feet* cither claws 
or fins. I learn further that they are amphibi- 
ous, and by night graze on the pasture-fields, for 
they eat grass like cattle and birds that pick 
up seeds. They have also a great liking for the 
date when ripe enough to drop from the palms, 
and accordingly they twist their coils, which are 
supple, and large enough for the purpose, around 


these trees, and shake them so violently that 
the dates come tumbling down, and afford them 
a welcome repast. Thereafter when the night 
begins gradually to wane, but before there is yet 
clear daylight, they disappear by plunging into 
the sea just as the first flush of morjiing faintly 
illumines its surface. They sky whales also 
frequent ,this sea, though it is not true that 
they come near the shore lying in wait for 
thunnies. The dolphins arc reported to be of 
two 3orts — one fierce and armed with sharp- 
pothted teeth, which gives endless trouble to the 
fisherman, and is of a remorselessly cruel disposi- 
tion, while the other kind is naturally mild and 
tame, swims about in the friskiest way, and is 
quite like a fawning dog. It does not run away 
when any one tries to stroke it, and it takes with 
pleasure any food it is offered. 

(19.) The sea-hare, by which I now mean the 
kind found in the great sea (for of the kind found 
in the other sea I have already spoken), re- 
sembles in every particular the land hare ex- 
cept only the fur, which in the case of the 
land animal ,\s soft and lies smoothly down, and 
does not resist the touch, whereas its brother 
of the sea has bristling hair which is prickly, and 
inflicts a wound on any one who touches it. It 
is said to swim atop of the sea- ripple without ever 
diving below, and to be very rapid in its move- 
ments. To catch it alive is no easy matter, as it 
never falls into s the net, nor goes near the line and 


bait of the fishing-rod. When it suffers, how- 
ever,- from disease, and, being in consequence 
hardly able to swim, is cast out on shore, then if 
anyone touches it with his hand death ensues if he 
is not attended to, — nay, should one, were it only 
with a staff, touch* this dead hare, he is affected in 
the same way A those who have touched a basi- 
lisk. But a root, it is said, grows along the coast 
of the island, well known to every one, which 
is a remedy , for the swooning which ensues. It 
is brought close to the nostrils of the person who 
has fainted, who thereupon recovers conscious- 
ness. But should the remedy not be applied the 
injury proves fatal to life, so noxious is the 
vigour which this hare has at its command. 

Frag. XT. B. follows here* 
(22.) There is also a race called the S k i r a- 
t a i,f whose country is beyond India. They are 

* This is the fragment in which JElian describes the 
one-horned animal which he calls the Kartawm. Rosen - 
mfiller, who has treated at largo of tho unicorn, which he 
identifies with the Indian rhinoceros, thinks that ^Elian 
probably borrowed his account of it from Kte'sias, who 
when in Persia may have heard exaggerated accounts of it, 
or may have seen it represented in (sculpture with varia- 
tions from its actual appearance. Tychsea derives its name 
from Kerd, an old name, he says, of the rhinoceros itself, 
and tanan, i.e., cv/rrens velox, vrniens. Throe animals 
were spoken of by the ancients as having asingle_ horn — the 
African Oryx, the Indian Ass, and what is specially called 
the Unicorn. Vide cmte, p. 59. 

t Vide ante, Fragm. xxx. 3, p. 80, and p. 74, notet, where 
they are identified with the Kir&tas. In tho R6.md.yama 
there is a passage quoted by Lassen (Zeitschr. f. Kunde d. 
Morgenl. II. 40) where are mentioned "the Kiratas, some 
of whom dwell in Mount Mandara, others use their ears as a 
covering ; they are horrible, black-faced, with but one foot 




snub-nosed, either because in (he tender years of 
infancy their nostrils are pressed down, and con- 
tinue to be so throughout their after-life, o 
because such is the natural shape of the organ 
Serpents of enormous size are bred in tbei. 
country, of which some kinds seize the cattle when 
at pasture and devour them, while ether kinds only 
suck the blood, as do the Aigithelai in Greece, of 
which I have already spoken in the proper place. 

but very fleet,, who cannot be exterminated, are brave 
men and cannibals." (Schwanbeek, p. 66.) f Lassen places 
011c branch of them on the south bank of the Kausi iu 
Pupal, and another in Tipera.— Ed. hid. Ant.'} 



OF AEMffi 

Chaps. I.— XVII. inclusive. 

Lbipzio, 1867. 


Arrian, who variously distinguished himself 
as a philosopher, a statesman, a soldier, and an 
historian, was bora in Nikoroedia, in Kithynia, 
towards the end of the first century. He became 
a pupil of the philosopher ilpiktetos, whose lcffi'res 
he published. Having been appointed prelect of 
Kappadokia under the emperor Hadrian, ho acquired 
during his administration a practical knowledge 
of the tactics of 'war in repelling an attack made up- 
on his province by the Alani and Massagetaj. His 
talents recommended him to the favour of the 
succeeding emperor, Antoninus Pius, by whom he 
was raised to the consulship (a.d. 146'). In his 
later years he retired to his native town, where he 
applied his leisure to the composition of works on 
history, to which he was led by his admiration of 
Xenophon. Ho died at an advanced age,. in the 
reign of the, emperor Marcus Aurclins. The work 
by which he is best known 'fa hyj account of 
the Asiatic expedition of Alexander the Great, 
which is remarkable alike for the accuracy of its 
narrative, andtbeXenophontic case and clearness, 
if not the perfect purity, of its style. His work 
on India ('Iv&k^ or to 'hHum) may be regarded as 
a continuation of his Anabasis, though it is not 
written, like the Anabasis, in the Attic dialect, but 
in the Ionic. The reason may have been that he 


wished his work to supersede the old and less 
accurate account of India written in Ionic by Kte- 
Bias of Knidos. 

Tho hiik consists of three parts : — the fiwt 
gives a general description of India, based chiefly 
on tho accounts of the country ' given by Megas- 
thenfe and ErauOsthcnSs (chaps i-xvii.); tho 
second gives an account of the voyage made by 
Nearchos the Kretan from the Indus to the 
Fasitigris, based entirely on the narrative of 
the voyage written by Nearchos himself (chaps. 
xviji.-xlii,); the third contains a collection of 
proois to show that the southern parts of the world 
are uninhabitable on account of tho great heat 
(chap. xE to the end), 


I. The* regions beyond the, river I n d u s on 
the west are inhabited, up to the river K dp h e u, 
by two Indian tribes, the A s t a k e n a i and the 
Assakenoi, who are not men of great stature 
like the Iudians on the other side of the Indus, 
nor so brave, nor yet so swarthy as most Indians. 
They Were in old times subject to the Assyrians, 
then after a period of Median rule submitted to 
the Persians, and paid to K y r o s the son of 
Kambysfo the tribute from their land which 
Kyros had imposed. The N y s a i o i , however, 
are not an Indian race, but descendants of those, 
who came into India with Dionysos , — perhaps 
not only of those Greeks who had been disabled 
for service in the course of the wars which 
Dionysos waged against the Indians, but perhaps 
also of natives of the country whom Dionysos, 
with their own consent, had settled along with the 
Greeks. The district in which he* planted this 
colony he named N y s a i a, after Mount Nysa, 
and the city itself N y s a.* But the mountain 

*' Nysa, the birthplace of the wine-god, was placed, 
according to fancy, anywbero up and down the world 
wherever tho vine was found to flourish. Now, as the 
region watered by the K6ph.es was in no ordinary measure 
feradious of the joyous tree, there was consequently a Nysa 
somewhere upon its banks. Lassen doubted whether there 


close by the city, and on the lower slopes of which 
it is built, is designated Meros, from the accident 
which befell the god immediately after his birth. 
These stories about Dionysos arc of course but 
fictions of the poets, aAd wc leave them to the 
learned among the Greeks or Barbarians to ex- 
plain as they may. In the dofniuions of the 
Assakcnoi there is a great city called M a s- 
s a k a, the seat of the sovereign power which 

controls the whole reahn.f And there is an- 


other city, Pcuk ulai t i s, which is also of 
gr!!ftfc;.Ize and not far from the Indus. £ These 

wasacifcytotfio name: bntM. de St.-Martin islessscpptionl, 
and would identify it- with an existing villa™i.» which pre- 
serves tivecsof its iiaiiio, being called Nyflitta. This, lie say*, 
is near tho northern bank f>f tho river of Kabul at less 
than *w.i lcasrneq Ih'Iow Uashlnaijiir, and may suitably re- 
present tlio Sy<-i ■ •(" i In-* historians. This place, he adds, 
ought, to bo oF .Median or iVivia.ii foundation, Biuce. the 
nomenclature is Iranian, tlio namo o[ Nyaa or Nisava which 
figures in tin? cnftinoffoiiic geograph / of tho Zi'whivesta 
beinj? one whjch is J'ar-siiread in tlm countries of ancient 
Iran. He refers hit-' readers for remarks on this point, to 
A. de Humboldlvs Cri)tr<l Asia, 1. pp. lift neq. ed. 1843. 

t Massaka (other forms are Massa<;», Masaga, and 
Mazaga.) — Tho Sanskrit M a*akft, a. pity situated near the 
Gauri. /JurtiiM states that it was defended by a rapid 
river on its eastern side. When attacked by Alexander, it 
held out for four days against all his assaults. ' 

J PeukelaV is (other forms— Peiikelnotis, Peukolitw, 
Peukelaotis). " The (Jreek name of Peukelaotis or Peuko-. 
la.itis was immediately derived from Pukkalaoti, which is 
the Tali or spoken form of the Sanskrit Pushkalav a ti. 
It is also called Ponkelns by Arrian, and the people are 
named Peukalei by Dionysius Periegetes, which are 
both closo transcripts of the PAH P u k k a 1 a. The form of 
ProklaTs, which is found in Arriau's 1'm-iplux of the Ery~ 
thrwan Sea and also in Ptolemy's Geography, is perhaps 
only an attempt to tfive the Hindi name of Pokhar, 
instead of the .Sanskrit P n s h k a r a." So General Gun- 
Dinghaiu, who fixed its position at " the two largo town* 


settlements lie on the other side of the river 
Indus, and extend in a westward direction as far 
as the Kop hen. 

,11. Now the countries which lie to the east 
of the Indus I take to be *I n d i a Proper, and 
the people who inhahit tljp m to be Indians.!? 
The northern boundaries of IndAi so defined are 
formed by Mount T auro s, though the range 
does not retain that name in these parts. Tauros 
begins from the sea which washes the coasts 
of J'amphylia, Lykia, and Kilikia, and stretches 
away towards the Eastern Sea, intersecting* i-tie 
whole continent of Asia. The range bears dif- 
ferent names in the different countries which 
it traverses. In one place it is called Para- 
p a mi sos, in another Emodos,|| and iu a 

Paransr nnd Ghilrradn, which form part of Ihe well-known 
Has lit n fi jjar. or ' eight cities,' tliat are suited closo to- 
gether on tlic eastern bunk of the lower JSwf.t river." The 
position indicated is nearly seventeen miles to I In- north- 
east of Pc-hhfiivnr. Pus hi a hi, according to Prof. Wilson, 
is still reprcsenti d by the nu'dern Pckh cly or Pakholi, 
in tho neighbourhood of Peshawar. 

§ In limiting Indifi to the eastern side of tho Indus, 
.Arrinn cxproscs tho view generally lield in antiquity, 
which would appear to he also that of the Hindus them- 
selves, sineerthey are forbidden by one of their old tradi- 
tions to cross tlilit river. Much, lnnvVver, may he «iid for 
the theory which would extend India to the foot of tho 
'great mountain ranges of Hindu Kush and Parapaniisos. 
There is, for instance, tho fact that in the region lying 
between these mountains and tho Indus many places either 
now bear, or liavo formerly borne, names whieh can with 
certainty bo traced to Sanskrit sources. The subject is 
diBenssed at some length in Blphinstone's Hixtunj of India, 
pp. 331-«, also by de St-Mnrtin.— E'lvde, pp. 9-14. 

|| Parapainisoa (other forms— -Paropamisos, Paro- 
pamissos, Pnropanisos). This denotps the great moun- 
tain range now called Hind A Knsh, supposed to 


third I m a o a , and it has perhaps other names 
besides. The Makedonians, again, who served 
with Alexander called it K a u k a s o s, — this 
being another Kaukasos and distinct from the 
Skythian, so that the story went that Alexander 
penetrated to the regions beyond Kaukasos. 

> : — t 

bo a corrnptod form of " Indicus Caucasus," the name 
given to tb,c range by the Macedonians, either to flatter 
Alexander, or because they regarded it as a. continuation of 
Kaukasos. Arrinn, however, and others held it to bo a 
continuation of Tauros. Tho mountains belonging to 
tho range which lie to tho north of the Kabul river are 
called N i a h a'd h a, (see Lassen, Ind. Alt. l..p. 22, note), a 
Slterifist word which tippeuro perhaps in tho form Paro- 
panisos, which is that given by Ptolemy. According to 
Pliny, the Skythians called Mount Caucasus Graucasis, 
a word which represents the Indian name of Paropamisos, 
Gravakshas, which Hitter translates " aplcndc-nles 
rupium mantes." .According to CJenerul Cunningham, the 
Mount P a r e a h or Aparasin of tho ZemJavi-stn cor- 
responds with the Paropaniisos of the Greeks, l'aro, the 
first part of the word, St.-Murtin says, represents un- 
doubtedly tho Pa.ru or Paruta of the local dialeets 
(in Zend, rurauta meaning mountain). He acknow- 
ledges, however, that he cannot assign any reason why the 
syllabic j>a has been intercalated betweeu the vocables 
pai-u and nishada to form the Paropanisadw of the 
Greek. The first Greek writer who mentions' the range is 
Aristotle, who calls it Parnassos : see his MeteoroL I. 18. 
Hindu. Kn sh generally designates now the eastern part 
of the range, and Paroparoisos tho western. Accord- 
ing to 'Sir Alexander Barnes, the na.mo Hindu Kush is 
unknown to the Afghftns, but there is a pattieular peak 
and also a pass, bearing that name betweou Afghanistan 
end Turkestan. — E mod on (other forms — Emoda, Emo- 
don, Hemodes). The name generally designated that part 
of the Himalayan range which extended along Nepal aud 
Bhfttan and onward towards the ocean. Lassen derives 
the word from the Sanskrit lisiimavata, in Prakrit havmota, 
' snowy.' If this bo so, ' Hnmodos' is the more correct 
form. Another derivation refers the word to " hfrnMiri* 
{kemob, gold, and oAt i, mountain), ' tho golden mountains/ 
— so called either because they were thought to contain 
gold mines, or because of the aspect they presented when 
their snowy peaks reflected the golden effulgence of snnsot. 


On the west the boundaries of India are* 
marked by the river Indus all the way to tbe 
great ocean into which it pours its waters, which 
it •does by two mouths. These mouths are not 
close to each other, like the five mouths of the 
I s t e r (Danube), but diverge Jikc those of the 
N i 1 e, by which the Egyptian delta is formed. 
The Indus in like manner makes an Indian delta, 
which is not inferior in area to the Egyptian, and 
is called in the Indian tongue P a 1 1 a 1 a.^[ 

On the south-west, again, and on the soutlj, 
India is bounded by the great ocean just "men- 
tioned, which also forms its boundary on the east. 
The parts toward the south about Pattala and 
the river Indus were seen by Alexander and many 
of the Greeks, but in an eastern direction Alex- 

«jf Pattala. — The name of the Delta was properly 
Fatal one, and FA tain was its capital. This wits 
situated at the head of the Delta, where the western stream 
of the Indus bifurcated. That ha has generally been 
regarded as its modern representative, but General Cun- 
ningham would "almost certainly" identify it with 
Nirankol or Haidarah&d, of which P&talpur 
and Pfttasila ('flat rock') were old appellations. With 
regard to the name Fatala he suggests that " it nA,y have 
been derived from P&tala, the trumpet flower" (Bignunia 
svaveolens), *' in allusion to the trumpet shapo of the pro- 
vince included- between the eastern and western branches 
of the mouth of the Indus, as the two branches as thoy 
approach the sea curve outward like the month of a trum- 
pet." Bitter, however, says : — " Fatal* 1 is the designa- 
tion bestowed by the Brahmans on all the provinces in the 
west towards sunsot, in antithesis to Frasiaka (the 
eastern realm) in Ganges.land : for P&til/i is the mytholo- 
gical name in Sanskrit of the under-world, and conse- 
quently of the land of the west." Arrian's estimate of the 
magnitude of the Delta is somewhat excessive. The length 
of its base, from the Fitti to the Kori mouth, was less than 
1000 stadia, while that of the Egyptian Delta was 1300. 


xnder did not penetrate beyond the river II \- 
p li a s i s, though a few authors have described 
the country as far as the river Gauges and 
the parts near its niouths and the city of P <a- 
limbothra, which is the ^.greatest in India, 
and situated neap; the Ganges. 

III. I .thttll now state the dimensions of India, 
and in dokig so let me follow Eratosthenes 
of Kyreufi as the safest authority, for this Kra- 
tosthenos made its circuit a subject of special 
imjuirv.* He states, then, that if aline be drawn 
from Mount Tauros, where the Indus has its 
springs, along the course of that river and as far 
as the great ocean and the mouths of the Indus, 
this side of India will measure 13,000 stadia. f 
But the contrary side, which diverges from the 
same point of Tauros and runs along the Eastern 
Sea, he makes of a much different length, for 
there is a headland which projects far out into the 

* Schinieder, from whose text I translate, has here 
altered (perhaps unnecessarily) the reading of the MSS. 
from rfys itepioduv to ytjs Tre/nobov. The measurements 
given by Strata are more accurut'i than thoge of Arrian. 
They are, however, iut at all wide of the mark; General 
Cunningham, iutleed, remarks that their close agreement 
with the actual size of the couutry is very remarkable, and 
shows, ho adds, that the Indians, even at that early date in 
their history, had a very accurato knowledge of the form 
and extent of their native land. 

f The Olympic stadium, 'which was in perioral use 
throughout Greece, contained 600Grcokfcet "-- 625 Roman 
feet, or 606$ English feet. Too Uoman mile containod 
eight stadia, being about half a stadium less than an 
English mile. The schoinos (mentioned below) was ~ 2 
Persian parasangs — 60 stadia, but was generally taken at 
haif that length. , 


sea, and this headland is in length about 3*000 
stadia. The eastern side of India would thus by 
his calculation measure 16,000 stadia, and this is 
wjiat he assigns as the breadth of India. The 
length, again, from west to'cast as far as the city 
oF P a 1 i m b o I h r a he sets down, he says, as 
it had been measured by tchaan) since there ex- 
isted a royal highway, and he gives it as 10,000 
stadia. But as for the parts beyond they were 
not measure^ with equal accuracy. Those, how- 
ever, who write from mere hearsay allege that 
the breadth of India, inclusive of the hi-niknd 
which projects into the sea, is about 10,000 stadia, 
while the length measured from the coast is about 
20,000 stadia. But K t 6 s i a s of Knidos says 
that India equals in size all the rest of Asia, which 
is absurd; while Oncsikritos as absurdly 
declares that it is the third part of the whole 
earth. Nearchos, again, says that it takes 
a journey of four months to traverse even the 
plain of India ; while Megast heads, who 
calls the breadth of India its extent from east to 
west, though others call this its length, says that 
where shortest the breadth "is 1,0,000 stadia, 
and that its length — by which he means its ex- 
tent from north to south— is, where narrowest, 
22,300 stadia. But, whatever be its dimensions, 
the rivers of India are certainly the largest to 
be found in all Asia. The mightiest are the 
Ganges and the Indus, from which the 
country receives Us name. Botlj are greater than 


the Egyptian Nile and the Skythian later 
even if their streams were united into one. I 
think, too, that even the A k e s i n 6 s is greater 
than either the Ister or the Nile where it jojns 
the Indus after receiving its tributaries the II y- 
d a s p e s and the Ilydraotes, sjnee it is at 
that point so much as 300 stadia In breadth. It 
is also pqssible that there are even many other 
larger rivers which take their course through 
India. „ 

IV. liut I am unable to give with assur- 
ance*?;! being accurate any information regarding 
the regions beyond the H y p h a s i s, since the 
progress of Alexander was arrested by that river. 
But to recur to the two greatest rivers, the Gan- 
ges and the Indus. Mcgasthenos states 
that of the two the G a n g c s is much the larger, 
and other writers who mention the Ganges agree 
with him ; for, besides being of ample volume 
even where it issues from its springs, it receives 
as tributaries the river K a i n a s, and the Eran- 
noboas, and the Kossoanos, which are all 
navigable. It receives, besides, the river S o n o s 
and the S i t, t o k a t i s, and the S o 1 o m a t i s, 
which arc also navigable, and also the Rondo* 
c h a 1 6 s, and the S a m b o s, and the M a g 6 u, 
and the Agoranis, and thcOmalis. More- 
over there fall into it the Kommenases, a 
great river, and the. K ako uth is, and the 
Andomatis, which flows from the dominions 
of the M a d y«t n d i n o i, an Indian tribe. In 


addition to all these, the A m y s t i s, which flows 
past the city Katadapa, and the Oxyrai- 
g i s from the dominions of a trihe called the 
Pin z ala i, and the Errenysis from the 

Ma t ha i, an Indian trihe, unite with the Ganges. J 

, « 

J Arrian here Awmerates seventeen tributaries of the 
Ganges. The number is .given us nineteen by Pliny, who 
adds the Prinas anil the Jomands, which Arrian elsewhere 
(cap. viii.) mentions wider the name of the Jobares. Those 
tributaries have been nearly ail identified by the 
researches of, such learned men as Kennel, Wilford, 
Sculcgel, Lassen, and Hchwanbcdk. M. do St.-J1artin, 
in reviewing their conclusions, clears np a few poinla 
which thoy had left in donbl, or wherein ho thiiiim tlifly 
had erred. I shall now shew bow ciieb of the nineteen 
tributaries has been identified. 

Ka'inas. — This has been identified with the Kan, or Kane, 
or Kcna, which, however, is only indirectly a tributary of the 
Ganges, as it falls into the Jaranu. The Sanskrit name of 
the Kau is Sona, and Scbwnnbeck (p. 36) objects to the 
identification that the Greeks invariably represent the Sans- 
krit (■ by their >7, and never by at. St.-Martin attaches 
uo importance to tins objection, and gives the Sanskrit 
equivalent as Kaiana. 

Krranoboas. — As Arrian informs us (cap. s.) that 
Paliiubothra(L' Ataliptitra, Patni") was situated 
at the confluence of tliis river with the Ganges, it must 
be identilied with the river S 6 n, whieli formerly join- 
ed the Ganges u. little above Uankipnr, the western 
suburb of I'iitnft, from which its embouchure fcs now 
1C miles distant and higher up the Ganges. The word no 
doubt represents the Sanskrit H i r a n^ a v A h a (' carrying 
gold') or rliranyahahu ('having golden an*s'), which are 
both poetical names of the Sim. Megastheues, however, 
and Arrian, both mako the Erannoboas and the Son to bo 
distinct rivers, and hence some would identify the former 
with the Gandak (Sanskrit Gandaki), which, accord- 
ing to Lassen, was called by tho Buddhists lliranyavati, 
or ' tlie golden.' It is, however, too small a stream to suit 
the description of- the Erannoboas, that it was the largest 
river in India after the Ganges and Indus. Tho Son may 
perhaps in tho time of Mogasthencs have joined the Ganges 
by two channels, which he may have mistaken for separate 


Regarding these streams Mcgastheuusas- 
serts that none of them is inferior to the M a i- 

Ko bo an os. — Cosoagns is tlio form of the name in 
Pliny, and heneo it hiis been taken to bo the representa- 
tive of tho Sanskrit K a. ulhiki, tbc river now vailed tlie 
Kosi. Schwanhcck, however, thinks it represents the 
Sanskrit KusAvSJia ('treasure-bearing ), and tlmt it is there- 
fore an epithet of V.ie S ft n, like IliranyavfUia, wliich has 
the same meaning. It seems somcmiat to favour this 
view that ArriaTi iu his enumeration places tho Kosoa- 
nos betwccfi the Kraunoboas and the Son. 

Son os. — Tho S6n, wliieh now joins tho Ganges ten 
miles above Dinfipur. The word is considered to be a 
contraetiou of the Sanskrit Suvarnii (Suvanna). 
' golden,' and may have been given as a name to the river 
aitlier because its Hands were yellow, or because they 
contained gold dust. 

Sittokatis. — It has not been ascertained what river 
was denoted by this name, but St.-Martin thinks it may 
be the representative of the SudakfintsV-a river now 
unknown, but mentioned in the .MaliAblifwata, along 
with tho KousadharA (tho Kosi), the SadAntra (the Kara- 
toya), and the Adhriebya (the Atreyi), from which it w 
evident that it l>elonged to tho northern parts of Bengal. 

Solomatis. — It has not been ascertained wliat river 
was denoted by -this name. General Cunningham iu one 
of his maps gives the Solomatis as a name of tho S a r a u j u 
or Sarju, a tributary of tho Ghagrft ; whilo Konfey and 
others would identify it with Iho famous S a r a s v a 1 1 or 
Sarsnti, which, according to tho legends, after disappearing 
underground,. -joined tho Ganges at Allahabad. There is 
more probability, however, in Lrsseti's suggestion, that 
tho word somewhat erroneously transliterates mrdvatt, 
the natne of a city of Koaola mentioned by KftlidAsa and 
in tho Puriinas, where it apiiears generally in the form 
gravasii. This city « tood on a river which, though nowhere 
mentioned by Uame, must also liave been called Sa.rQ.eatt, 
since there is an obvious connexion between that name and 
the name by which the river of that district is now known — 
the Bapti. 

Kondochatos. — Now the Gandak, — in Sanskrit, 
Gandaki or Gandakavati (fiu>0Ktp6tts), — because of its 
abounding in a kind of alligator having a horn-like 
projection on its nose. It skirted tho eastern border of 
Kosala, joining the GangoB opposite Palibothra, 

Sambo s. — This has no Sanskrit equivalent. It perhaps 
designated the G u m t f , which is said to go by the name of 
the S a m b o u at«a part of its course below Lncknow. 


i n d r o s, even at the navigable part of its course ; 
uid as for the Ganges, it has a breadth where 

Miigo d. — According to Mannert the R & m g a n g A, but 
rgrach more probably tbc Mak Anada, now tbe M~a bona, the 
principal river of Magadka, whiih joins tbo GangcB not far 
below PAlnA. 

Agoranis. — According t* Rcnnel (bo Ghagrfi—a. 
word derived from tho Sanskrit Gharghara ('of 
gurgling 8ound'),'but according to St.-Martin it must bo 
some one or other of the G&ourisso abundant in the 
river nomenclature of Northern India. The vulgar form is 
G aurana. 

O m a 1 i s has not boon identified, but Schwanbeck 
remarks tba A | the word closely agrees with tho Sanskrit 
V i in a 1 a (' stainless'), a common epithet of rivers. 

KomracrniBOs. — Hoiinel and Lassen identify <j)iis 
with the K a r ni a n A s a {bnn-onim nperum desltnttrix), a 
small river which joins tho Ganges above Baxar. Accord- 
ing to a Hindu legend, whoever touches the water of this 
river loses all the merit of his good works, this being trans- 
ferred to the nymph of tho stream. 

Kakouthi s.— Mannert erroneously takes this* to bo tbe 
Gum it. Lassen identifies it with tbe Kukouttha of tbe 
Buddhist chronicles, and hence with the Uagnmtti, tho 
Bhagavati of Sanskrit. 

Andflmati s. — Though t by Lassen to bo connected with 
tbe Sanskrit Andhamati (tnnebricosnx), which he would 
identify, therefore, with tho T Am as A, (now the Tonsa), 
the two names being identical in meaning ; but, as the river 
canio from the country of tho Madyandini (Sanskrit 
M a d h y a n d i n a, meridionalis), — that is, the people of 
the Smith, — Wilford's conjecture that the Andomatis is tho 
Dammuda, tho river which flows by Bardwan, is more 
likely to be correct. Tho Sanskrit nanio of the Dauunuda 
is Dharmadaya. 

Am y s ti s. — The city Katadupa,*vhich this river passes, 
Wllford would identify with Katwa or Outwa, in Lower 
Bengal, which is situated on the western branch of the 
delta of tho Ganges at tho confluenco of tho Adji. As the 
Sanskrit form of the name of Katva should be Katadvfpa 
' (dvipa, an island'), M. de St.-Martin thinks this conjecture 
has much probability in its favour. Tho Amystis may 
therefore bo the Adji, or Ajavati as it is called in 

x y m a g i s. — The Pazalai or Passalai, called in Sans- 
krit Pankala, inhabited the DoSb, and through this or 
the region adjacent flowed the Ikshumati ('abounding 

narrowest of one hundred stadia, while in many 
places it spreads out into lakes, so that when the 
country happens to he flat and destitute of eleva- 
tions the opposite shores cannot be seen from 
each other. The Indus presents also, he says, 
similar characteristics. "The H y d r a &to s, flow- 
ing from the dominions of the Kd-mbistholi, 
falls into the Akesines after receiving the 
II y p h a s i s in its passage through the 
Astrybai, as well as the Sa ranges from 
the K e k i a n s, and the Neudros from the 
A 1 1 a"V~e n o i. The Ilydaspes again, rising 
in the dominions of the Oxydrakai, and bring- 
ing with it the S i n a r o s, received in the 
dominion of the A r i s p a i, falls itself into the 
A k e s i u 6 s, while the Akesines joins the 
Indus in the dominions of the Malloi, but 
not until it has' received the waters of a great 

name, since tho letters r and T in Grcok could readily be 
confounded. The form of the nomo in Mcgasthenea may 
have been Oxymctis. 

Errenysis closely corresponds to Varanasi, tlio 
name of •Hariftras in Sanskrit, — so called from tho rivers 
VArAnn. and Asi, which join the Ganges in ita neighbourhood. 
The M a t h a i, it has heen thought, may be the pcojplo of 
Magadha. St.-Miwtin would fix their position in tho timo of 
Mogasthencs in the country between tho lower part of tho 
Gumtl and the Ganges, adding that as tho Journal of 
Uiwen ThsAng places their capital, Matipura, at a little 
distance to the east of the upper Ganges near GaiigA- 
dvara, now HardwAr, they must have extended their 
namo and dominion by tho traveller's time far beyond 
thoir original bounds. Tho Prinas, which Arrian hsa 
omitted, St. -Martin would identify with tho TAmasA, which 
is otherwise called the FarnAsA, and belongs to tho same 
part of the country as tho Kainas, in connexion with which 
rliny mentions the prinas. 


tributary, the Toutapos. Augmented by 
all these confluents the A k e s i n e s succeeds 
in imposing its name on the combined waters, 
and still retains it till it unites with the I n d u s. 
The K o p h e n, too, falls into the Indus, rising 
in P c u k c t l a ii t'i s, and bringing with it the M a- 
1 a n t o s, and *Jie S o a s t o s, and the G a r r o i a. 
Higher up than these, the P a r c n o s and S a- 
pamos, at no great distance from each other, 
empty themselves into the Indus, as docs also 
the S o a n o s, which comes without a tributary 
from the hill-country of the A b i s s a r t-a u s.§ 

§ Tribultvries of the. Indus : — Arrian Las hero named 
only 13 tributaries of this Indus (in Sanskrit Siudhu, in the 
I'cri'pl&s of the Krytli/roian Sea, Sinthos"), but in Ma Ana- 
basis (v. (5) ho states that the. number was 15, which is also 
the number given by Strabu. 1'liny reckons them at 19. 

Uydraotds.— Other forms aro Bhouadis and Hy- 
arotis. It is now called the Ravi, the name being a 
contraction of the Sanskrit Airavati, which means 
'abounding in water,' or 'tho daughter of Air&vat,' the 
elephant of Indra, who is said to have generated tho river by 
striking his tusk against the rock whence it issues. His 
namo has reference to bis ' ocean' origin. The name of tho 
Kambistholai does not occur elsewhere. Schwanbeok 
(p. 33) conjeeturcs that it may represent tlio Sanskrit 
Kapistbala, 'ape-land,' the letter m being insirted, as 
in 'Palirabotliro,.' Ho rejects Wilson's suggestion that 
the people rifeiy bo identical with tho Kambojce. Arrian 
errs in making the Hyphasis a tributary ub the Hydraotes, 
for it falls into theAkosinfis below its junction with 
that river. See on this point St.-Martin, E'tude, p. 396. 

Hyphasis (other forms aro Bibasis, Hypasis, and Hy- 
pauis). — In Sanskrit tho VipSsa, and now tho By as a or 
Bias. It lost its name on being joined by the Satadru, 
* tho hundred-channelled,' the Zaradros of Ptolemy, now 
the Satloj. The.Aatrob a i are not mentioned by any 
writer except Arrian. 

Saranges. — According to Schwanbeok, this word 
represents the Sanskrit S a r a n g a, ' six-limbed.' It is 
not known what river it designated. Thg Kckians, through 

According to M e g a s t h e n e s most of these 
rivers are navigable. Wc ought not, therefore, to 

whose country it flowed, wore called in Sanskrit, according 
to Lassen, Sekaya. ( 

Noudrosis notknowU. TheAttakenoi are like- 
wise unknown, unless their name is another form of 
. Assalienoi. «, 

H y d a s p e s. — Wdaspcs is the form in Ptolemy, which 
makes a nearer approach to its Sanskrit Aamc — the Vitasta. 
It is now the Be hut or <T h e 1 a m ; called also by the 
inhabitants t>u its banks tho B e d u s t a, ' widely spread.' 
It is the "fabulosus Hydaspes" of Horace, and the " Modus 
(i.e. Eastern) Hydaspes" of Virgil. It formed the western 
boundary of tho dominions of Poros. » 

A. k e s i n e s. — Now the C h e n & b : its Sanskrit name 
A%iikni ('dark -coloured') is met with in the hymns of the 
Veda.^it was called afterwards Clmndrabhfiga (portio 
ifuti.ee) . This would be represented in GTeek by San- 
drophagos, — a word in sound bo like Awlrophagos or 
Ale-;eandropluu)os (' devourer of Alexander') that tho fol- 
lowers of the great conqueror changed the name to avoid 
tho evil omen, — tho more so, perhaps, on account of tho 
disaster which befell the Makedonian fleet at the turbulent 
junction of the river with tho Hydaspes. Ptolemy gives its 
name as Ha/ndabaga, (Sandabala by an error on the part of 
copyists), which is -an exact transcription of the Prakrit 
Chandabaga, of which word the Cantabra of Pliny is a 
greatly altered form. Tho Malli, in whose country this 
river joins the Indus, are tho Malava of Sanskrit, whose 
name is prescribed in tho Ifult&n of the present day. 

Toutapos. — Probably tho lower part of tho Satadru 
or Satlej. 

K 6 p h e n. — Another form of the name, used by Stra- 
bo, Plury, Ac, is Kophe s, -eHs. It is now tho Kabul 
river. The threo rivers here named as its tributaries pro- 
bably correspond to Kie Suvftstu, Gauri, and Kam- 
pana mentioned in tho 6th book of the MaMbMraty. 
The Soastos is no doubt the Suvastu, and the Garoaa tho 
Gauri. Curtius and Strabo call the Suastus tho Cho- 
aspes. According to Manncrt the Suastus and the 
Garroa or Guroeus were idontical. Lassen, however (JnA. 
Alterthums. 2nd ed. II. 673 ff.), would identify the 
Suastus with tho modern SuwadorSvat, and tho Ga- 
rasus with its tributary thePanjkora; and this is the 
view adopted by Cunningham. The Malamantos some 
would identify with tho Chocs (mentioned by Arrian, 
Anabasis iv. 25), which is probably represented by the 
K a m e h or Kb. o {i a r, the largest of the tributaries of the 


distrust what we are told regarding the Indus 
and the Gauges, that they are beyond com- 
parison greater thau the 1 s t e r and the N i 1 c. 
In the case of the Nile we kuow that 
it does not receive any tributary, but that, 
on the contrary, in its passage J h rough Egypt 
its waters are dfeiwn off to fill the canals. As 
for the later, it is but an insignificant stream 
at its sources, and though it no doubt receives 
many confluents, still these arc neither equal 
in number to the confluents of the Indus and 


Kabul; others, however, with the Punjkora, while Cun- 
ningham takes it to be the Burn, a tributary which 
joins the Kabul from the south. With regard to the name 
K o p h o 8 this author remarks : — "The name of K o p h e s 
its as old as the time of the Vedax, in wldch the K ubh a 
river is mentioned [Itotli first pointed this out; — eonf. 
Lassen, ■at sup.J us an affluent of the Indus; and, as it is 
not an Aryan word, 1 infer that the name must have been 
applied to the K ft b u 1 river before the Aryan occupation, 
or at least as early as u.c. 2500. In the classical v\ liter*, we 
Bud tho Choos, Kophes, and Choaspos rivers to 
the west of tho Indus ; and at tho present day we have the 
Kutiii r, the Kura in, and the ( ■ o tu a 1 rivers to the west, 
and tho Kuuihar river to tho east of the Indus,— all 
of which are derived from the Skylhiiin kv, 'water.' It 
is tho guttural fiirm of the Assyrian /•». in ' Hu-nhrates' 
and ' Eulwns,' and of tlie Turk! su, and Tibebui elm, all 
ofwbiehmeaii 'water' or 'river.' Ptolemy tho Geogra- 
pher mentions a city called Kabura, Situated on the banks 
of the Kophen, and a people called Kabot it;u. 

P a r e n o ».— Probably tho modorn B u r i n d u. 

S a p a r n o s— Probably tho A b b a a i n. 

So an us represents tho Sanskrit Suvana, 'the sun,' 
or ' fire' — now the S v a n. Tho Abissaraaans, from whose 
country it comes, may be the A b i s a r a of Sanskrit -. 
Lassen, Ind. Alt. II. 163. A king called A b i s a r e e 
is mentioned by Arrian in his Anabasis (iv. 7). _ It may 
be here remarked that tho names of the Indian 'kings, as 
given by the Greek writers, wore in general tho names 
slightly modilied of the people over who«a they ruled. 


Ganges, nor are they navigable like them, 
if we except a very few, — as, for instance, the 
I n n, and Save which I have myself seen. The 
Inn joins the later where the Noricaivs 
march with the 11 h se t i a n s, and the Save in 
the dominions of the P a n n o n i a n s, at a place 
which is called T a u r u n n m.|| «Some one may 
perhaps know other navigable tributaries of the 
Danube, but the number certainly cannot be great. 
V. Now if anyone wishes to sta^e a reason 
to account for the number and magnitude of the 
IudiaiTrivers let him state it. As for myself I 
have written on this point, as on others, from 
hearsay ; for M e g a s t h e n e s has given the 
names even of other rivers which bevond both 
the Ganges and the Indus pour their waters 
into the Eastern Ocean and the outer basin of 
the Southern Ocean, so that he asserts that 
there are eight-aud-fifty Indian rivers which are 
all of them navigable. But even Mcgasthenes, 
so far as appears, did not tiavel over much of 
India,, though no doubt he saw more of it than 
those who came with Alexander the son of Philip, 
for, as ho tells lis, he resided at' the court o< 
Sandrakottos, the greatest king in India, 
and also at the court of Poros, who was 
still greater than he. This same Megasthenes 
then informs us that the Indians neither 
invade other men, nor do other men invade the 

Taurvuum. — Tho modern Semi in. 

1 95 

Indians : for 8 e s o s t r i s the Egyptian, after 
having overrun the greater part of Asia, and 
advanced with his army as fur as Europe, re- 
turned home ; and Idanthyrsos the Skythiau 
issuing from Skythia, subtlued many nations of 
Asia, and carriedliis victorious arms even to the m 
borders of Egyyt ; and S e m i r a*m i s, again, the 
Assyrian queen, took in hand an expedition 
against India, but died before she could execute 
her design : and thus Alexauder was the only 
conqueror who actually invaded the country. 
And regarding D i o n y s o s many traditSms are 
current to the effect that he also made an ex- 
pedition into India, and subjugated the Indiana 
before the days of Alexauder. But of II e v a k 1 e s 
tradition does not say much. Of the expedition, 
however, which Bakkhos led, the city of Nj s a 
is no mean monument, while Mount Mfiros is 
yet another, and the ivy which grows thereon, 
and the practice observed by the Indians them- 
selves of marching to battle with drums and 
cymbals, and of wearing a spotted dress such as 
was worn by the Bacchanals of Dionysos. On 
the other hand, there are but fev< memorials of 
HeraklSs, and it may be doubted whether even 
these are genuine : for the assertion that Herakles 
was not able to take the rock A o r n o s, which 
Alexander seized by force of arms, seems to me 
all a Makedonian vaunt, quite of a piece with 
their, calling Parapamiso s— K aukasos, 
though it had no connexion at aty with K. a u.k a- 


s o 8. In the same spirit, when they noticed a cave 
in the dominions of the Parapamisadai, 
they asserted that it was the cave ofProme- 
tlieus the Titan, in which he had hecn sus- 
pended for stealing thfc fire.^f So also when they 
came among the Sibai, an Indian tribe, and 
noticed that thef wore skins, thyy declared that 
the Sibai were descended from those who be- 
longed to the expedition of Herakles and had been 
left behind : for, besides being dressed in skins, 
the Sibai carry a cudgel, and brand rfn the backs 
oV th#i- oxen the representation of a club, 
wherein the Makcdonians recognized a memorial 
of the club of Herakles. But if any one believes 
all this, then this must be another Herakles; — 
not the Theban, but either thcTyrian or the Kgyp- 
tian, or even some great king who belonged to 
the upper country which lies not far from India. 
VI. Let this be said by way of a digression to 
discredit the accounts which some writers have 
given of the Indians beyond the Ilyphasis, 
for those 'writers who were in Alexander's ex- 
pedition arc not altogether unworthy of our faith 
when they describe India as far as the Ilyphasis. 
Beyond that limit we have no real knowledge 
of the country : since this is the sort of account 
which Megasthene's gives us of an Indian river : — 
Its name is the S i 1 a s ; it flows from a fountain, 

IT ThoCaTfl of Pro mo th on s. — Probably ono-of tJie 
vast ravpa in fcho nf iffhbonrhood of .B a m i an. 


failed after the river, through the dominions of 
the S i 1 a; a n s, who again are called after the 
river and the fountain; the water of the river 
manifests this singular property — that there is 
nothing which it can buoy*up, nor anything which 
can swim or float' in it, but everything sinks down 
to the bottom,., so that there is? nothing in the 
world so thin and unsubstantial as this water.* 
But to proceed. Rain falls in India during the 
summer, especially on the mountains P a r a p a- 
m i sos andE mo do sand the range of I ma os, 
and the rivers which issue from these aw laige 
and muddy. Rain during the same season falls 
also on the plains of India, so that much of the 
country is submerged : and indeed the army of 
Alexander was obliged at the time of midsum- 
mer to retreat in haste from the A k e s i n 6 s, 
because its waters overflowed the adjacent plains. 
So we may by analogy infer from these facts 
that as the Nile is subject to similar inunda- 
tions, it is probable that ram falls during the 
summer on the mountains of Ethiopia, and 
that the Nile swollen with these rains overflows 
its banks and inundates Egypt. Wo find, at any 
rate, that this river, like those we have men- 
tioned, flows at the same season of the year 
with a muddy current, which could not be 
the case if it flowed from melting snows, nor 
yet if its waters were driven back from its 

* Soo noto, p. 65. 


mouth by the force of the Etesian winds 
which blow throughout the hot season, f and 
that it should flow from melting snow is all the 
more unlikely as snow cannot fall upon tlje 
Ethiopian mountains, 6n account of the burning 
heat ; but that ruin should fait* on them, as on 
the Indian mountains, is not beyemd probability, 
since India in other respects besides is not 
unlike Ethiopia. Thus the Indian rivers, like 
the Nile in Ethiopia and Egypt, breed croco- 
diles, while some of them have fish and mon- 
strous features such as are found in the Nile, 
with the exception only of the hippopotamus, 
though Onesikritos asserts that they breed 
this animal also. With regard to the inhabit- 
ants, there is no great difference in type of 
figure between the Indians and the Ethiopians, 
though the Indians, no doubt, who live iu the 
south-west bear a somewhat closer resemblance 
to the Ethiopians, being of black complexion 
and black-haired, though they arc not so 
snub-nosed nor have the hair so curly ; while 
the Indians who live further to the north are in 
person liker the Egyptians. 

VII. The Indian tribes, Megasthenfis tells 
us, number in all 118. [And I so far agree 
with him as to allow that they must be indeed 
numerous, but when he gives such a precise 
estimate I am at a loss to conjecture how he 

t Of., Herodotus, II. 20-27. 


arrived at it, fur the greater part of India he 
did not visit, nor is mutual intercourse main* 
tained between all the tribes.] He tells us further 
that the Indians were in old times nomadic, like 
those Skythians who did* not till the soil, hut 
roamed about in* their wagons, as the seasons^ 
varied, from <me part of Skyfhia to another, 
neither dwelling in towns nor worshipping in 
temples ; and that the Indians likewise had nei- 
ther towns nor temples of the gods, but were so 
barbarous that they wore the skins of such wild 
animals as they could kill, and subsisted '•ton tne 
bark of trees ; that these trees were called in 
Indian speech tola, and that there grew on them, 
as there grows at the tops of the palm -trees, a 
fruit resembling ballsof wool ; J thatthey subsisted 
also on such wild animals as they could catch, 
eating the flesh raw, — before, at least, the com- 
ing ofDionysos into India. Dionysos, how- 
ever, when he came and had conquered the people, 
founded cities and gave laws to these cities, and 
introduced the use of wine among the Indians, as 
he had done among the Greeks, and taught them 
to sow the land, himself supplying ,seeds for the 
purpose, — either because Triptolemos, when 
he was sent byDemoter to sow all the earth, 
did not reach these parts, or this must have been 
some Dionysos who came to India before Trip- 
tolemos, and gave the people the seeds of 

t Tala.— The fan-palm, the Borassus jlabelliformis of 
botany. * 


cultivated plants. It is also said that Dionysos 
first yoked oxen to the plough, and made many 
of the Indians husbandmen instead of nomads, 
and furnished them with the implements of agri- 
culture ; and that the Indians worship the other 
• gods, and Dionysos himself in particular, with 
cymbals and drums, because he so r taught them ; 
and that he also tnught them the Satyric dance, 
or, as the Greeks call it, the Kordnx ; and that he 
instructed the Indians to let their hair grow long 
in honour of the god, and to wear the turban ; 
and that he taught them, to anoint themselves 
with unguents, so that even up to the time of 
Alexander the Indians were marshalled for 
battle to the sound of cymbals and drums. 

VIII. But when he was leaving India, after 
having established the new order of things, he 
appointed, it is said, Spatembas, one of his 
companions and the most conversant with Bakkhic 
matters, to be the king of the country. When 
Spatembas died his son B o u d y a s succeeded 
to the tovereignty ; the father reigning over the 
Indians fifty-two years, and the son twenty ; the 
son of the latteY, whose name was Kradeuas, 
duly inherited the kingdom, and thereafter the 
succession was generally hereditary, but that 
when a failure of heirs occurred in the royal house 
the Indians elected their sovereigns on the . prin- 
ciple of merit ; H e r a k 1 e s, however, who is cur- 
rently reported to have come as a stranger into 
the country, is styd to have been in reality a native 



of India. This Ilorakles is held in especial ho- 
nour by the S o u r a s e n o i, an Indian tribe who 
possess two large cities, Methora and C 1 e i s o- 
b o r a, and through whose country flows a naviga- 
ble river called the lob arcs. But the dress 
which this Herakles wore,* Mega^thcnes tells us,- 
resembled that if the T h e b a n II 6 r a k 1 c s, as 
the Indians themselves admit. It is further said 
that he had a very numerous progeny of male 
children borji to him in India (for, like his The- 
bau namesake, he married many wives), but thaj, 
he had only one daughter. The name of this 
child was 1? a n d a i a, and the land in which she 
was born, and with the sovereignty of which 
Ilorakles entrusted her, was called after her name, 
P a n d a i a, and she received from the hands 
of her father 500 elephants, a force of cavalry 
4000 strong, and another of infantry consisting 
of about 130,000 men. Some Indian writers say 
further of Ilorakles that when he was going over 
the world and ridding land and sea of whatever 
evil monsters infested them, he found in tVe sea 
an ornament for women, which even to this day 
the Indian traders who bring us »their wares 
eagerly buy up and carry away to foreign markets, 
while it is even more eagerly bought up by 
the wealthy Romans of to-day, as it was wont to 
be by the wealthy Greeks long ago. This article 
is the sea-pearl, called in the Indian tongue 
margarita. But Herakles, it is said, appreciating 
its beauty as a wearing ornament, caused it to 


be brought from all the sea into India, that he 
might adorn with it the person of his daughter. 

MegasthenSs informs us that the oyster which 
yields this pearl is there fished for with nets, 
and that in these same parts the oysters live in 
ihe sea in shoals^ 1 ike bfee- swarms: foreysters, like 
bees, have a king or a queen, rfad if any one is 
lucky enough to catch the king he readily en- 
closes in the net all the rest of the shoal, but if 
the king makes his escape there is iiq chance that 
tjie others can be caught. The fishermen allow 
the fleshy parts of such as they catch to rot 
away, and keep the bone, which forms the orna- 
ment : for the pearl in India is worth thrice its 
weight in refined gold, gold being a product of 
the Indian mines. 

IX. Now in that part of the country where 
the daughter of Ilerakles reigned as queen, it is 
said that the women when seven years old are of 
marriageable age, and that the men lire at most 
forty years, and that on this subject there is 
a tradition current among the Indians to the 
effect that Ilerakles, whose daughter was born 
to him late* in life, when he saw that his end 
was near, and he knew no man his equal in 
rank to whom he could give her in marriage, 
had incestuous intercourse with the girl when 
she was seven years of age, in order that 
a race of kings sprung from their common 
blood might be left Ob rule over India ; that 
Ilerakles therefore made her of suitable age for 

marriage, and that in consequence the whole 
nation over which P a n d a i a rcigucd obtained 
this same privilege from her father. Now to me 
it^ccms that, even if Ilcrakles could have done 
a thing so marvellous, he tould also have made 
himself longer-liVe'd, iu order to have intercourse^ 
with his daughter when she was* of mature age. 
But in fact, if the age at which the women 
there are marriageable is correctly stated, this is 
quite consistent, it seems to me, with what is 
said of the rifen's age, — that those who live long- 
est die at forty ; for men who come s» mucfi 
sooner to old age, and with old age to death, must 
of course flower into full manhood as much earlier 
as their life ends earlier. It follows hence that 
men of thirty would there be in their green old 
age, and young men would at twenty be past 
puberty, while the stage of of full puberty would 
be reached about fifteen. And, quite compatibly 
with this, the women might be marriageable at 
the age of seven. And why not, when Megasthencs 
declares that the very fruits of the country ripen 
faster than fruits elsewhere, and decay faster ? 

From thfi time of Dionysos to Sandra- 
k ottos the Indians counted 153 *kings and a 
period of 6042 years, but among these a republic 
was thrice established * * * * and another 
to 300 years, and another to 120 years.§ The 

§ It is not known from what sources Megasthenes derived 
these. figures, which are extremely modest wlxra compared 
with those of Indian chronology, where, as in geology, 
years are hardly reckoned but in myriads^ For a untice of 


Indians also tell us that Dionysos was earlier 
than II 6 r a k 1 e s hy fifteen generations, and 
that except him no one made a hostile invasion 
of India, — not even K y r o s the son of Kambyscs, 
although he undertook an expedition against the 
j$ k y ; t h i a n s, and otherwise s'nowcd i himself the 
most enterprising monarch in all Asia ; but that 
Alexander indeed came and overthrew in 
war all whom he attacked, and would even have 
conquered the whole world had his army been 
willing to follow him. On the other hand, a 
sense o-r justice, they say, prevented any Indian 
king from attempting conquest beyond the limits 
of India. 

X. It is farther said that the Indians do not 
rear monuments to the dead, but consider the 
virtues which men have displayed in life, and 
the songs in which their praises are celebrated, 
sufficient to preserve their memory after death. 
But of their cities it is said that the number is 
so great that it cannot be stated with precision, 
but that such cities as are situated on the banks 
of rivers or on the sea-coast are built of wood, for 
were they built of brick they would riot last long 
— so destructive arc the rains, and also the rivers 
when they overflow their banks and inundate the 
plains ; those cities, however, which stand on com- 
manding situations and lofty eminences are built 
of brick and mud. The greatest city in India is 

the Magadan dynasties see Elpbinstone's History of 
lit ilia, bk. III. csj>. iii. 


that which is called Palim bothr a, in the 
dominions of the P r a s i a n s, || whevc the streams 
of the E r a nno b o as and the Ganges unite, — 
the Ganges being the greatest of all rivers, and 
the Erannoboas being psrhaps the third largest 
of Indian rivcrsj though greater than the great- 
est rivers elsewhere ; but it is Smaller tlirfff tTTc* 
Ganges where it falls into it. M e g a s t h e n 6 s 
says further of this city that the inhabited part of 
it stretched on either side to an extreme length 
of eighty stadia, and that its breadth was fifteen 
stadia, and that a ditch encompassed it ajl roivvd, 
which was six plethra in breadth and thirty cubits 
in depth, and that the wall was crowned with 
five hundred and seventy towers and had four-and- 
sixty gates.^f The same writer tells us further this 

|| The Prasioi. — Tntho notes which tho reader will 
find at pp. 9 and 57, the accepted explanation of tho 
name l'msioi, by wliich the Greeks designated tho 
people of Magadha, has been stilted. General Cunningham 
explains it dOfercntly: — "Strabo aud l'liny," lie says, 
" agree with Arriau in calling tho people of F'alibo- 
thra by the name of Prasii, which modern writers have 
unanimously luforrod to the Sanskrit, 1? r a eh ya, or ' east- 
ern.' But it secniB to me that Prasii is only ^;hc Greek 
form of Pal fis a or Par As a, which is an actual and 
well-know* name of M a g a d h a, of which Fiilibothra was 
the capital. It obtained this name frc^n the Pa! ana, or 
I i idea frondosa, which still grows as luxuriantly in the 
province as in the time of Uiwen Thsfing. Tho common 
form of the name is P a r ft 8, or when quickly pronounced 
Prig, wliich I take to bo the true original of tho Greek 
Prasii. This derivation is supported by the spelling of 
the name given by Curtius, who calls the people Pharraaii, 
which is an almost exact transcript of the Indian name 
Parasiya. The Praxiakos of iElian is only the derivative 
from Palusakfi." 

% The more usual and tho more accurate form of the name 
is Falibothra, a transcription of P&liputra, tho spoken 


remarkable fact about India, that all the Indians 
are free, and not one of them is a slave. The 

form of P&taliputra, the name of the ancient capital of 
Magadha, and a name still occasionally applied to the 
city of PAtnft, which is its modern representative, 'i'hr 
word, which moaus the son" of the trumpet-flower {Bigno- 
nia sitaveolens), appears in several different forma. A pro- 
vjpiciaj form, Pahuiputrikot in common in tho popular 
tali's. \ uc form in tCe l'anchatantm is PAtaliputra, which 
Wilson (Introd. to tho Dana Kamara. Clwfili'a) considered 
to he tho true original name of tho city of which I'Atali- 
putra wasaniJ-ro corruption, — sanctioned, however, by com- 
mon usage. In a Sanskrit treatise of geography of a 
somewhat recent date, called tho Knhetra Samasa, the fonn 
of the niimo is P&Ubli&tta, which is a near ^approach to 
Palibolru. The Ceylon chroniclers invariably wrote the 
nau e as PJtiliputto, and in the inscription of Asdka at 
Girn&r it is written I'iitalipntta. Tho earliest, name of tho 
place, according to the liAtnAijann, was Katuambi, as having 
been founded by Kusa, tho father of tho famous sage Visva- 
mitra. It was also called, especially by tho poeU, Paxh- 
paptwo or Kusumapura, which has the same meaning — ' the 
city of flowers' This city, though tho least ancient of all 
the greater capitals in Gangetie India, was destined to 
become the most famous of thorn all. The Vuyu Purtiwi 
attributes its foundation to Udaya (called also Udayasva), 
who mounted the throne of Magadha in tho year 519 B.C., 
or 24 years after the Nirv'ina (Vishnu PurOna, p. 467, n. 15 ; 
Lassen, hid. Alt. II. p. 63). i'ataliputra did not, however, 
according to the Cingalese chronicles, become the residence 
of the kings of Magadha till the reign of Kalasdka, who 
ascended the throne 453 b. c. Under Chandragupta (the 
Sandrakottos of the Greeks), .who founded tho Buddhistic 
dynasty of tho Mauri y as, the kingdom was extended from 
the montl* of the Gangos to tho regions beyond the Indus, 
and became in fact the paramount power in India. Nor 
was PAtaliputra — to judge from the account of iifs size and 
splendour given Taixo^ by Arrian, and in Frag. XXV. by 
Strabe, who both copied it from Mcgasthenrs — unworthy to 
be the capital of so great an empire. Its happy position at 
tho confluence of the Sdn an,d Ganges, and opposite the 
junction of tho Gandak with their united stream, naturally 
mado it a great contre of commerce, which would no doubt 
greatly increase its wealth and prosperity. AsAka, who 
was third in succession from Chandragupta, and who made 
Buddhism the state religion, in his inscription on the rock 
at Dhauli in Katak, gives it the title of Metropolis of the 
Religion, i.e. of Buddhism. The wooden wall by which, as 
Megaathenea tells us^it was surrounded, was still standing 


Lakedaimonians and the Indians here so 
far agree. The Lakedaimonians, however, hold 

seven centuries later tliau his time, for it was seen about 
{he' beginning of the 5th century after Christ by the Chi- 
nese traveller Fa-Hian, who* thus writes of Pfiliputra, 
which ho calls Pa-lian-fu : — "The city was the capital of 
kin? A-you (Asoka/. The palaces of the king which aro 
in the city 'have walla of which the •gf.ones have \ "~ "~ 

lected by the genii. The carvings and the sculptures which 
ornament the windows are such as this ago could not nrnko ; 
they stiJl actually exist." These 'palaces oi' the king' aro 
mentioned by Diodoros in his epitome of Megasthcues, as 
will be seen by a refereueo to p. 3!J. It was in the 
interval which separates the journey of Fa-Hian from that 
of his compatriot Iliwen Thsang- that is, between the year 
■100 and the year 032 after Christ— that the fall of Pfltali- 
putra was accomplished, for where the spleiXid metro- 
polis had once stood iliwen Thsiing found nothing but 
ruins, and a village containing about two or three hnudred 
houses. The cause of its downfall and decay is un- 
known. The ruing seen by the Chinese traveller are 
no longer visible, but lie buried deep below tho foun- 
dations of modern Patuil. An excavation quite recently 
made in that city for the construction of a public tank 
placed this fact beyond question ; for, when tho workmen 
had dug down to a depth of 13 or 15 feet below tho surface 
of the ground, some remains were discovered of what must 
have been tho wooden wall spoken of by Megasthem's. 
1 have received from a friend who inspected tho excavation 
the following particulars of this interesting and remarkable 
discovery : — " During the cold season 1878, whilst digging 
a tank in Sheikh Mithia Ghari, a part of PAtna almost 
equally distant from the chunk (market-place 1 ) and the 
railway station, tho exeavatore, at a depth of sorje 12 or 15 
feet below the swampy surface, discovered the remains 
of a long brick wall running from N.W. to S.E. How far 
this wal 1 extended beyond the limits oj:' the excavation — 
probably more than a hundred yards — it is impossible to 
say. Not far from the wall, and aluiost parallel to it, was 
found a line of palisades ; tho strong timber of which it was 
composed inclined slightly towards tho wall. In one place 
fchcro appeared to havo been some sort of outlet, for two 
wooden pilltiiw rising to a height of some 8 or 9 feet above 
what had evidently been the ancient level of the place, and 
between which no trace of palisades could bo discovered, 
had ali the appearance of door or gate_ posts. A number 
of wells and sinks wore also found, their mouths being in 
each case indicated by heaps of fragments of broken mud 
vessels. From tho best-preserved specimens of these, it 


the II e 1 o t s as slaves, and these Helots do servile 
labour; hut the Indians do not even use aliens as 
slaves, and much less a countryman of their own. 
XI. But further : in India the whole pcopb 

Ntjtptik. •■' that then; shape must have differed 'from that of 
those now in use. One of the wells having been eleared 
out, it was found to yield capital drmking water, and 
among tho rubbish taken out of it were discovered several 
iron spear-hcads, a fragment of a large vessel, Ac." The 
fact thus established — that old Pulibuthra, audits w:i 11 with 
it, are deep underground— takes away all probability from 
the supposition of Kavcnshaw that the large Onouiids near 
PAtnA ((billed l'auch-Pahfiri, or ' five hills'), consisting of 
dttyris ntfi bricks, may be the remains of towers or bas- 
tions of the ancient city. The identity of Pfilaliputra with 
Pallia was a question not settled without ranch previous 
controversy. D'Anville, as has been already stated, misled by 
the assertion of Pliny that the Jomanes (Jamiia) flows 
through the Palibothri into the Ganges, referred its site 
to the position of Allahfibiid, where theso two rivers unite. 
Itcnnel, again, thought it. might be identical with Kauauj, 
though he afterwards abandoned this opinion ; wliile Wilf ord 
placed it on the left bank of the Gauges at some distance 
to the north of KAjniahAl, and Prancklin at BhAgnlpur. 
'J'he main objection to the claims of PatuA— its not being 
situated at the conflueuce of any river with the Ganges — 
was satisfactorily disposed of when hi the courso of research 
it was brought to light that the S6n was not only iden- 
tical with the Erranoboos, but that ip to tho year 1379, 
when it formed a new channel for itself, it had joined the 
Gauges ift tho neighbourhood of Pain a. I may conclude 
this notice by quoting from Strabo a description of a pro- 
cession such as Megaathencs (from whose work Strabo 
vory probably draw his information) must have seen parad- 
ing the streets of Palibothra : — "In processions at their fes- 
tivals many elephants are in the train, adorned with gold 
and silver, numerous carriages drawn by four horses and 
by several pairs of oxen ; then follows a body of attendants 
hi full dress, (bearing) vessels of gold, large basins and gob- 
lets an onjuia in breadth, tables, chairs of state, dririking- 
cups, and Livers of Indian copper, most of which were set 
with precious stones, as emeralds, beryls, and Indian car- 
buncles ; garments cmbroidored and interwoven with gold ; 
wild beasts, as buffaloes, panthers, tamo lions ; and a mul- 
titude of birds of variegated plumage and of fine song." — 
Uobu'b Transl. of Strabo, 111. p. 117. 


are divided into about seven castes. Among 
these are the Sophists, who are not so numerous 
as the -others, but hold the supreme place of 
dignity and honour, — for they are under no necessity 
of doing any bodjjy labour at all, or of contribut- 
ing from the produce o? their .labour ar.yiftirig - 
to the commcli stock, nor indeed is any duty 
absolutely binding on them except to perform 
the sacrifices offered to the gods on behalf of the 
state. If ajiy one, again, has a private sacrifice to 
offer, one of these sophists shows him the proper 
mode, as if he could not otherwise make an ac- 
ceptable offering to the gods. To this class the 
knowledge of divination among the Indians is 
exclusively restricted, and none but a sophist is 
allowed to practise that art. They predict about 
such matters as the seasons of the year, and any 
calamity which may befall the state; but the 
private fortunes of individuals they do not care to 
predict, — either because divination does uot con- 
cern itself with trifling matters, or because to 
take any trouble about such is deemed uirbccom- 
ing. Buf« if any one fails thrice to predict truly, 
he incurs, it is said, no further peiullty than being 
obliged to be silent for the future, and there is no 
power on earth able to compel that man to speak 
who lias once been condemned to silence. These 
sages go naked, living during winter in the open 
air to enjoy the sunshine, and during summer, 
when the heat is too powerful, in meadows and 
low grounds \uider large trees, thtf shadow where* 


of Ncarchos says extends to five plethra in circuit, 
adding that even ten thousand men* could be 
covered by the shadow of a single tree. They 
live upon the fruits which each season products, 
and ou the bark of trees, — the, bark being no less 
•^rtv'. 1 "».iul nutritious than the fruit of the date- 
palm, u 

After fliese, the second caste consists of the 
tillers of the soil, who form the most 
numerous class of the population. They are nei- 
ther furnished with arms, nor have any military 
duties to perform, but they cultivate the soil and 
pay tribute to the kings atid this independent 
cities. In times of civil war the soldiers are 
not allowed to molest the husbandmen or ravage 
1 heir lauds: hence, while the former are fighting 
and killing each' other as they can, the latter may 
be seen close at hand tranquilly pursuing their 
work, — perhaps ploughing, or gathering in their 
crops, pruning the trees, or reaping the harvest. 

The third caste among the Indians consists 
of the 'her d s m e. n, both shepherds and neat- 
herds; and these neither live in cities nor in 

* Cf. tin." ilcicnptiiin of the wihii 1 tvro quoted from Otie- 
sikrilos, Slrabo XV. i. 21. Cf. also Milton's description of 
it in Paratl/ixi- lm.<l, l>k. ix., 11. 1 100 vk hoijij. : — 
"Tln-iv soon Lhoy cbowj 
Thi> fiff-troe, i;ot that kind for fruit renowned, 
But .suuli iiN ;i.t tli is d;iy to Indiana known 
Jn Mai it bar or Dcwun ttprciuls her anus 
Ihanrhin'* no bi'oiul and long that in llu> ground 
Th<s bcudrd i wigs take root, and dau^litora grow 
About tin' molher hve, a. pilbm-d slnulu 
HigVi ovnrarclwid, and fi.-b.oing walks between." 


villages, but they are nomadic and live on the 
hills. They too are subject to tribute, and this 
they pay in cattle. They scour the country in 
]>'jrsuit of fowl and wild beasts. 

XII. The fourth eastc'consists of It a n d i- 
c raft men and' retai.1- dealers. Tb,cj^ 
have to perforin gratuitously certain public ser- 
vices, and to pay tribute from the products of 
their labour. An exception, however, is made 
in favour of those who fabricate the weapons of 
war, — and not only so, but they even draw 
pay from the state. In this class are Included 
shipbuilders, nnd the sailors employed in the 
navigation of the rivers. 

The fifth caste among the Indians consists 
of the warriors, who arc second in point 
of numbers to the husbandmen, but lead a 
life of supreme freedom and enjoyment. They 
have only military duties to perform. Others 
make their arms, and others supply them with 
horses, and they have others to attend on them 
in the camp, who take care of their horses, clem 
their arms, drive their elephants, prepare their 
chariots, and act as their charioteers,. As long as 
they are required to fight they .fight, and when 
peace returns they abandon themselves to enjoy- 
ment, — the pay which they receive from the state 
being so liberal that they can with ease main- 
tain themselves and others besides. 

*The sixth class consists of those called s u- 
perinte u dents. They swj^out what goes 


on in country and town, and report everything 
to the king where the people have a king, and 
to the magistrates where the people are self- 
governed,t and it is against use and wont f$r 
these to give in a false report ; — hut indeed no 
J.ndjjan is accused of lying. * ., 

The seventh caste consists of the council- 
lors o f,. s t a t e, who advise the king, or the 
magistrates of self-governed cities, in the man- 
agement of public affairs. In point of numbers 
this is a small class, hut it is distinguished by 
superior* wisdom and justice, and hence enjoys 
the prerogative of choosing governors, chiefs of 
provinces, deputy-governors, superintendents of 
the treasury, generals of the army, admirals of 
the navy, controllers, and commissioners who 
superintend agriculture. 

The custom of the country prohibits inter- 
marriage between the castes: — for instance, the 
husbandman cannot take a wife from the artizan 
caste, nor the artizan a wife from the husband- 
man cafltc. Custom also prohibits any one from 
exercising two trades, or from changing from one 
caste to another. One cannot, for instance, 
become a husbandman if he is a herdsman, or 

t " There have always been extensive tracts without any 
common head, some under petty chiefs, and some formed 
of independent villages: in troubled times, also towns 
Iihvc often For a long period carried on their own jrovcru- 
ment. All these would ho called republics by the Griwtos, 
who would naturally fancy their constitutions similar to 
what they had bcou al home."— Elphinstone's History of 
India, p. 240. 

til o 

become a herdsman if he is an artizan. It is per- 
mitted that the sophist only he from any caste : 
for the life of the sophist is not an easy one, but 
the hardest of all. 

XIII. The Indians lrant all wild animals in 
the same # way as* the Greeks, except the elephant, 
which is hunted in a mode altogether peculiar, 
since these animals arc not like any others. 
The mode may he thus described : — The hunters 
having selected a level tract of arid ground dig a 
trench all round it, enclosing as much space as 
would suffice to encamp a large arnTjr. They 
make the trench with a breadth of five fathoms 
aud a depth of four. But the earth which they 
throw out in the process of digging they heap up 
in mounds on both edges of the trench, and use 
it as a wall. Then they make huts for them- 
selves by excavating the wall on the outer edge of 
the trench, and in these they leave loopholes, 
both to admit light, and to enable them to see 
when their prey approaches and enters the enclo- 
sure. They next station some three or four of 
their best-trained she-elephants within the trap, to 
which they leave only a single passage by means 
of a bridge thrown across the trench, the frame- 
work of which they cover over with earth 
and a great quantity of straw, to conceal the 
bridge as much as possible from the wild animals, 
which might else suspect treachery. The hunters 
then go out of the way, retiring to the cells which 
they had made in the earthen^ wall. Now the 


wild elephants do nol go near inhabited places 

in the day-time, but during the night-time they 
wander about everywhere, and feed in herds, 
following as leader the one who is biggest and, 
boldest, just as cows follow bulls. As soon, then, 
asw^jji, approach the enclosure, and heat the cry 
and catch scent oi' the females, thej^ rush at full 
speed in tlie direction of the fenced ground, and 
being arrested by the trench move round its edge 
until they fall in with the bridge, along which 
they force their way into the enclosure. The 
hunters meanwhile, perceiving the entrance of the 
wild elephants', hasten, some of them, to take 
away the bridge, while others, running off to the 
nearest villages, announce that the elepliants 
arc within the trap. The villagers, on hearing 
the news, mount their most spirited and best- 
trained, elephants, and as soon as mounted ride 
off to the trap ; but, though they ride up to it, 
they do not immediately engage in a conflict 
with the wild elephants, but wait till these are 
sorely pinched by hunger and tamed by thirst ; 
when they think their strengtli lias bccn f enough 
weakened, they vet up the bridge anew and ride into 
the enclosure, when a fierce assault is made by the 
tame elephants upon those that have been en- 
trapped, and then, as might be expected, the wild 
elephants, through loss of spirit and faintness from 
hunger, are overpowered. On this the hunters, dis- 
mounting from their elephants, bind with fetters 
the feet of the wild ones, now by this time quite 


exhausted. Then thoy instigate the tame ones to 
heat tlicm with repented blows, until their suffer- 
ings wear them out and they fall to the ground. 
The hunters meanwhile, standing near them, slip 
nooses over their neckband mount them while 
yet lying ,on the ground; and, to prevent them 
shaking off their riders, or doing mischief other- 
wise, make with a sharp knife an incision all round 
their neck, and fasten the noose round in the 
incision. By means of the wound thus made they 
keep their head and ncek quite steady : for if 
(hey become restive and turn round, the wound is 
galled by the action of the rope. They slum, 
therefore, violent movements, ami, knowing that 
they have been vanquished, suffer themselves to 
be led in fetters by the tame ones. 

XIV. But such as are too young, or through 
the weakness of their constitution not worth keep- 
ing, their captors allow to escape to their old 
haunts ; while those which arc retained they lead 
to the villages, where at first they give them 
green stalks of corn and grass to eat. T,he crea- 
tures, however, having lost all spirit, have no wish 
to eat ; but the Indians, standing round them in 
a circle, soothe and cheer them by chanting songs 
to the accompaniment of the music of drums and 
cymbals, for the elephant is of all brutes the 
most intelligent. Some of them, for instance, 
have taken up their riders when slaiu in battle 
and carried them away for burial ; others have 
covered them, when lying on th,e ground, with a 


shield ; and others have home the hrnnt of battle 
in their defence when fallen. There was one even 
that died of remorse and despair because it had 
killed its rider in a fit of rage. I have myseF 
actually seen an elephant playing on cymbals, 
wjjfl&gther elephants were dancing to lys strains: 
a cymbal "had been attached to each, foreleg of the 
performer, and a third to what is called his trunk, 
and while he beat in turn the cymbal on his trunk 
he beat in proper time those on his two legs. 
The dancing elephants all the while kept danc- 
ing in a circle, and as they raised and curved 
their forelegs in turn they too moved in proper 
time, following ''as the musician led. 

The elephant, like the bull and the horse, 
engenders in spring, when the females emit 
breath through the spiracles beside their tem- 
ples, which open at that season. The period of 
gestation is at shortest sixteen months, and 
never exceeds eighteen. The birth is single, as 
in the case of the marc, and is suckled till.it 
reaches tys eighth year. The elephants that live 
longest attain an age of two hundred years, but 
many of them,, die prematurely of disease. If 
they die of sheer old age, however, the term of 
life is what has been stated. Diseases of their 
eyes are cured by pouring cows' milk into them, 
and other distempers by administering draughts 
of black wine ; while their wounds are cured by 
the application of roasted pork. Such are the 
remedies used by t the Indians. 

It in sufficient for me to have set forth these 
facts regarding the Indians, which, as the best 
known, both Ncarchos and Megasthe- 
^1 6 s, two men of approved character, 'have re- 
corded. And since my design in drawing up the 
present narrative was not to describe the manners 
and customs of the Indians, but to relate how 
Alexander couveyed his army from India 
to Persia, let this be taken as a mere episode.