Vedic Maths Tutorialtext-picture version |
Vedic Maths is based on sixteen sutras or principles. These principles are general in nature and can be applied in many ways. In practice many applications of the sutras may be learned and combined to solve actual problems. These tutorials will give examples of simple applications of the sutras, to give a feel for how the Vedic Maths system works. These tutorials do not attempt to teach the systematic use of the sutras. For more advanced applications and a more complete coverage of the basic uses of the sutras, we recommend you study one of the texts available.
N.B. The following tutorials are based on examples and exercises given in the book 'Fun with figures' by Kenneth Williams, which is a fun introduction some of the applications of the sutras for children.
Tutorial 1
Tutorial 2
Tutorial 3
Tutorial 4
Tutorial 5
Tutorial 6
Tutorial 7
Use the formula ALL FROM 9 AND THE LAST FROM 10 to perform instant subtractions.
We simply take each figure in 357 from 9 and the last figure
from 10.
So the answer is 1000 - 357 = 643
And thats all there is to it!
This always works for subtractions from numbers consisting of a
1 followed by noughts: 100; 1000; 10,000 etc.
So 1000 - 83 becomes 1000 - 083 = 917
1) 1000 - 777
2) 1000 - 283
3) 1000 - 505
4) 10,000 - 2345
5) 10000 - 9876
6) 10,000 - 1101
7) 100 - 57
8) 1000 - 57
9) 10,000 - 321
10) 10,000 - 38
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Using VERTICALLY AND CROSSWISE you do not need to the multiplication tables beyond 5 X 5.
8 is 2 below 10 and 7 is 3 below 10.
Think of it like this:
The answer is 56.
The diagram below shows how you get it.
You subtract crosswise 8-3 or 7 - 2 to get 5,
the first figure of the answer.
And you multiply vertically: 2 x 3 to get 6,
the last figure of the answer.
That's all you do:
See how far the numbers are below 10, subtract one
number's deficiency from the other number, and
multiply the deficiencies together.
Here's how to use VERTICALLY AND CROSSWISE for multiplying numbers close to 100.
Not easy,you might think. But with
VERTICALLY AND CROSSWISE you can give
the answer immediately, using the same method
as on the page.
Both 88 and 98 are close to 100.
88 is 12 below 100 and 98 is 2 below 100.
You can imagine the sum set out like this:
As before the 86 comes from
subtracting crosswise: 88 - 2 = 86
(or 98 - 12 = 86: you can subtract
either way, you will always get
the same answer).
And the 24 in the answer is
just 12 x 2: you multiply vertically.
So 88 x 98 = 8624
This is so easy it is just mental arithmetic.
Multiplying numbers just over 100.
The answer is in two parts: 107 and 12,
107 is just 103 + 4 (or 104 + 3),
and 12 is just 3 x 4.
107 + 6 = 113 and 7 x 6 = 42
Again, just for mental arithmetic
1) 102 x 107
2) 106 x 103
3) 104 x 104
4) 109 x 108
5) 101 x123
6) 103 x102
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The easy way to add and subtract fractions.
Use VERTICALLY AND CROSSWISE to write the answer straight down!
Multiply crosswise and add to get the top of the answer:
2 x 5 = 10 and 1 x 3 = 3. Then 10 + 3 = 13.
The bottom of the fraction is just 3 x 5 = 15.
You multiply the bottom number together.
Subtracting is just as easy: multiply crosswise as before, but the subtract:
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A quick way to square numbers that end in 5 using the formula BY ONE MORE THAN THE ONE BEFORE.
75^{2} means 75 x 75.
The answer is in two parts: 56 and 25.
The last part is always 25.
The first part is the first number, 7, multiplied by the number "one
more", which is 8:
so 7 x 8 = 56
1) 45^{2} 2) 65^{2} 3) 95^{2} 4) 35^{2} 5) 15^{2}
Method for multiplying numbers where the first figures are the same and the last figures add up to 10.
Both numbers here start with 3 and the last
figures (2 and 8) add up to 10.
So we just multiply 3 by 4 (the next number up)
to get 12 for the first part of the answer.
And we multiply the last figures: 2 x 8 = 16 to
get the last part of the answer.
Diagrammatically:
We put 09 since we need two figures as in all the other examples.
1) 43 x 47
2) 24 x 26
3) 62 x 68
4) 17 x 13
5) 59 x 51
6) 77 x 73
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An elegant way of multiplying numbers using a simple pattern.
This is normally called long multiplication but
actually the answer can be written straight down
using the VERTICALLY AND CROSSWISE
formula.
We first put, or imagine, 23 below 21:
There are 3 steps:
a) Multiply vertically on the left: 2 x 2 = 4.
This gives the first figure of the answer.
b) Multiply crosswise and add: 2 x 3 + 1 x 2 = 8
This gives the middle figure.
c) Multiply vertically on the right: 1 x 3 = 3
This gives the last figure of the answer.
And thats all there is to it.
Try these, just write down the answer:
Multiply any 2-figure numbers together by mere mental arithmetic!
If you want 21 stamps at 26 pence each you can
easily find the total price in your head.
There were no carries in the method given above.
However, there only involve one small extra step.
The method is the same as above
except that we get a 2-figure number, 14, in the
middle step, so the 1 is carried over to the left
(4 becomes 5).
So 21 stamps cost £5.46.
There may be more than one carry in a sum:
Vertically on the left we get 12.
Crosswise gives us 24, so we carry 2 to the left
and mentally get 144.
Then vertically on the right we get 12 and the 1
here is carried over to the 144 to make 1452.
Any two numbers, no matter how big, can be
multiplied in one line by this method.
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Multiplying a number by 11.
To multiply any 2-figure number by 11 we just put
the total of the two figures between the 2 figures.
Notice that the outer figures in 286 are the 26
being multiplied.
And the middle figure is just 2 and 6 added up.
1) 43 2) 81 3) 15 4) 44 5) 11
This involves a carry figure because 7 + 7 = 14
we get 77 x 11 = 7_{1}47 = 847.
1) 88 2) 84 3) 48 4) 73 5) 56
We put the 2 and the 4 at the ends.
We add the first pair 2 + 3 = 5.
and we add the last pair: 3 + 4 = 7.
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Method for diving by 9.
The first figure of 23 is 2, and this is the answer.
The remainder is just 2 and 3 added up!
The first figure 4 is the answer
and 4 + 3 = 7 is the remainder - could it be easier?
1) 61 2) 33 3) 44 4) 53 5) 80
The answer consists of 1,4 and 8.
1 is just the first figure of 134.
4 is the total of the first two figures 1+ 3 = 4,
and 8 is the total of all three figures 1+ 3 + 4 = 8.
6) 232 7) 151 8) 303 9) 212 10) 2121
Actually a remainder of 9 or more is not usually
permitted because we are trying to find how
many 9's there are in 842.
Since the remainder, 14 has one more 9 with 5
left over the final answer will be 93 remainder 5
1) 771 2) 942 3) 565 4) 555 5) 777 6) 2382 7) 7070
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